U.S. National Security and Military News Review http://feed.informer.com/digests/YQWYIQS6AN/feeder U.S. National Security and Military News Review Respective post owners and feed distributors Fri, 27 Dec 2013 05:08:25 -0500 Feed Informer http://feed.informer.com/ Space Command renews call for ways to refuel satellites in orbit https://www.defenseone.com/technology/2024/06/space-command-renews-call-ways-refuel-satellites-orbit/397609/ Defense One - All Content urn:uuid:d4ebef47-2466-2a10-c22a-c40e062f0c16 Mon, 24 Jun 2024 21:27:03 -0400 Despite others’ reservations, commander says U.S. space assets need to be able to outrun adversaries. Science & Tech Audrey Decker In this 2019 photo, the Space and Missile Systems Center’s WGS-10 (Wideband Global SATCOM) encapsulated satellite mated with a Delta IV launch vehicle was revealed completely in preparation for launch from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, along Florida’s Space Coast. Space Systems Command / Van Ha Oakland’s Mayor Sheng Thao Had Enough Troubles. Then the FBI Came Knocking. https://www.nytimes.com/2024/06/24/us/politics/oakland-mayor-sheng-thao-fbi-raid.html NYT > Federal Bureau of Investigation urn:uuid:7aba60bf-7670-8a8f-9161-8612ba4bce09 Mon, 24 Jun 2024 20:06:02 -0400 Sheng Thao was already facing a recall election as residents remain frustrated over crime and homelessness. She said on Monday that she had committed no crimes. Politics and Government Elections, Mayors Mayors Thao, Sheng Federal Bureau of Investigation Oakland (Calif) California Alameda County (Calif) Amy Qin and Joe Fitzgerald Rodriguez DHS details how AI could amplify biological, chemical threats https://www.defenseone.com/threats/2024/06/dhs-report-details-ais-potential-amplify-biological-chemical-threats/397608/ Defense One - All Content urn:uuid:ab1c880a-d1af-3918-48c7-5aa1a30f4bdf Mon, 24 Jun 2024 20:00:00 -0400 While access to laboratory facilities is still a hurdle, a new report notes that cloud labs could allow the stealthy development of weapons components. Threats Alexandra Kelley U.S. soldiers compete in the 2024 International Best CBRN Warrior Competition at the Army's Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. DOD photo by Melissa Buckley Judge Skeptical About Request to Limit Trump Statements on F.B.I. https://www.nytimes.com/2024/06/24/us/politics/trump-classified-documents-statements-fbi.html NYT > Federal Bureau of Investigation urn:uuid:831bd4ee-6464-2a75-b5e4-eaaa7dbc8600 Mon, 24 Jun 2024 19:13:44 -0400 Judge Aileen Cannon posed tough questions to prosecutors who want to bar the former president from making inflammatory remarks about the agents who searched Mar-a-Lago in the documents case. Federal Criminal Case Against Trump (Documents Case) Federal Bureau of Investigation Mar-a-Lago (Palm Beach, Fla) Truth Social (Social Network) Trump, Donald J Cannon, Aileen M Blanche, Todd (Attorney) Smith, Jack (Attorney) Alan Feuer and Eileen Sullivan Senate advances 2% raise for defense civilians, 4.5% for military https://www.defenseone.com/policy/2024/06/senate-advances-2-raise-defense-civilians-45-military/397595/ Defense One - All Content urn:uuid:b17c7f44-70ad-240a-a2b3-60f32e8ebc01 Mon, 24 Jun 2024 15:00:00 -0400 An unusual White House proposal to give different raises drew early fire, but lawmakers are passing up opportunities to do anything about it. Policy Erich Wagner sharrocks / Getty Images Trump’s Special Counsel Hearings: Judge Appears Concerned Over Jack Smith’s Funding https://www.justsecurity.org/97090/trump-special-counsel-challenge/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=trump-special-counsel-challenge Just Security urn:uuid:df7ccec5-de19-9ea9-aed7-ea585a28b76a Mon, 24 Jun 2024 13:37:31 -0400 <p>Key takeaways from Donald Trump's challenges to Special Counsel Jack Smith's authority in the classified documents case.</p> <p>The post <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/97090/trump-special-counsel-challenge/">Trump’s Special Counsel Hearings: Judge Appears Concerned Over Jack Smith’s Funding</a> appeared first on <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org">Just Security</a>.</p> <p><i><span style="font-weight: 400;">Klasfeld’s reporting is part of Just Security’s </span></i><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/88175/trump-trials-clearinghouse/"><i><span style="font-weight: 400;">Trump Trials Clearinghouse</span></i></a><i><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></i></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Over the course of two days of oral arguments, former President Donald Trump’s attorneys aimed at the 150-year-old foundations of the practice of appointing special counsels in the United States. The first day of arguments appeared to put Trump’s attorneys largely on the defensive. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Then, Special Counsel Jack Smith’s assistant appeared concerned that the judge was seriously considering Trump’s attack against their pot of “permanent, indefinite appropriations” from which they draw their financing. Such a challenge could force prosecutors to draw from another source within the Department of Justice, or face dismissal. Prosecutors emphasized that they have other funds to sustain the case.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Whether or not Trump ultimately prevails in Smith’s constitutional authority to prosecute him, his defense may have come closer to achieving other goals over two days of oral arguments. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The first, and most frequently discussed, is delay. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">U.S. District Judge Aileen Cannon has already </span><a href="https://apnews.com/article/trump-trial-classified-documents-judge-cannon-6f910c3cbe8d91e493ab5fb13019d45f"><span style="font-weight: 400;">indefinitely postponed</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> Trump’s trial for alleged </span><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2023/09/Just-Security-Mar-a-Lago-Trump-Clearinghouse-%E2%80%94-Superseding-Indictment-charging-Carlos-De-Oliveira-adding-two-charges-against-Trump-and-four-charges-against-Nauta-July-27-2023.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Espionage Act violations</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> over his possession and retention of classified documents at the Mar-a-Lago resort, and this multi-day hearing over a longshot legal challenge has only pushed his reckoning in the case further off on the calendar. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">As an added bonus for Trump, this delay comes in the form of conversation his lawyers want to keep in the public eye: Attorney General Merrick Garland’s role in supervising the special counsel and the money that funds Smith’s prosecution. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">As for the broader battle, Trump’s overarching effort to declare Smith unconstitutionally appointed remains a longshot, but Cannon made a blockbuster remark on Monday suggesting that the “limitless” funding of the special counsel’s office implicates serious separation of powers concerns for her. </span></p> <h2><b>The Long and Storied History of Special Counsels in the United States</b></h2> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">During the first day of arguments, prosecutor James Pearce noted most of the courts agree with the special counsel: Eight judges </span><a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2024/06/21/us/politics/trump-documents-special-counsel.html"><span style="font-weight: 400;">unanimously rejected</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> the notion that attorneys general lack the power to appoint special counsels in four separate criminal cases. Moreover, the U.S. tradition of special prosecutors </span><a href="https://www.nbcnews.com/politics/donald-trump/judge-trump-classified-documents-case-hear-challenge-special-counsels-rcna158248"><span style="font-weight: 400;">dates back</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> roughly a century and a half to then-President Ulysses S. Grant in the 1870s, and though the forms and practices of these appointments have varied, never once has a judge considered them unconstitutional. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">During the Watergate era, the Supreme Court unanimously </span><a href="https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/418/683/#tab-opinion-1950929"><span style="font-weight: 400;">signed off</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> on the special prosecutor’s authority in ordering then-President Richard Nixon to turn over the subpoenaed tapes in 1974. Nixon did not dispute the special prosecutor’s authority, leading to enduring debate on whether the Supreme Court resolved a contested issue, but every subsequent criminal defendant who tried to treat that as a source of controversy </span><a href="https://www.cbsnews.com/news/trump-documents-case-jack-smith-special-counsel/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">failed</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">. Special Counsel Robert Mueller successfully fended off attacks on his authority by Trump’s former campaign manager, Paul Manafort, Roger Stone’s associate, Andrew Miller, and Concord Management, the Russian company behind what prosecutors </span><a href="https://www.npr.org/2020/03/17/817215010/citing-security-feds-drop-case-against-russians-linked-to-election-interference"><span style="font-weight: 400;">described</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> as the internet troll farms engaged in attacks on the 2016 presidential election. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">More recently, President Joe Biden’s son Hunter </span><a href="https://www.kxan.com/news/political-news/ap-motion-after-motion-puts-trump-florida-case-in-slow-motion-as-3-day-hearing-begins/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">unsuccessfully fought</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> the constitutional authority of Special Counsel David Weiss. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Despite attempts by Trump’s attorneys to draw distinctions between those cases, Cannon appeared reluctant to buck this tradition, and she rebuked Trump’s attorney Emil Bove for likening a special counsel to a “shadow government.” </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“That sounds very ominous: shadow government, but what do you really mean?” Cannon pointedly asked Bove, fresh off a </span><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/96266/trump-verdict/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">stinging defeat</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> in Trump’s New York criminal trial.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">When Bove argued there was a risk in appointing someone with as much power as a special prosecutor without Senate confirmation, Cannon questioned whether that concern was “realistic” given the “well-defined regulations” surrounding these appointments.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“I don’t know if it’s really fair to throw aspersions in that direction,” Cannon said. </span></p> <h2><b>Trump’s Defense Strategy: Ratchet Up ‘Tension’ at Heart of the Special Counsel’s Role</b></h2> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">In all four of his criminal cases, Trump’s defense strategy has involved casting aspersions on prosecutors as partisan tools of President Biden. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Trump’s attorneys have not actually shown any ties between Biden and the special counsel — or for that matter, two local district attorneys in New York City and Atlanta over whom the White House has no jurisdiction. In Trump’s federal election interference case related to the Jan. 6th attacks, Smith’s prosecutors </span><a href="https://www.politico.com/news/2024/06/21/trump-classified-documents-cannon-garland-smith-00164541"><span style="font-weight: 400;">emphasized</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> that there’s “no coordination” between them and the Biden administration, and Garland’s remarks when appointing a special counsel suggested that this was the point.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“Such an appointment underscores the Department&#8217;s commitment to both independence and accountability in particularly sensitive matters,” Garland </span><a href="https://www.justice.gov/opa/speech/attorney-general-merrick-b-garland-delivers-remarks-appointment-special-counsel"><span style="font-weight: 400;">declared</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> over a year and a half ago, on Nov. 18, 2022. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Trump’s attorney Bove tried to use these words against Smith, pointing out that the U.S. Constitution </span><a href="https://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution-conan/article-2/section-2/clause-2/overview-of-the-appointments-clause"><span style="font-weight: 400;">requires</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> the Senate’s advice and consent on appointees who aren’t “inferior officers.” </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">If Smith doesn’t ultimately report to Garland, Bove argued, that would make the special counsel an unconfirmed “superior officer.” </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Pearce countered that all that matters in terms of the Constitution and precedent is that Garland has the power to supervise or even shut down the special counsel’s investigation. He declined to provide any details about what supervision Garland actually has over the investigation, including whether the attorney general signed off on Trump’s indictment. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Toward the end of the five-hour hearing on the first day, Cannon pressed Pearce to answer that question — and asked why such a disclosure would give prosecutors “heartburn.” </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The Justice Department has not yet revealed whether Smith reported to Garland before Trump’s indictment, and Pearce declined to solve the mystery at the hearing. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The prosecutor did, however, provide a strong indication about the answer, noting that the Code of Federal Regulations </span><a href="https://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/28/600.8"><span style="font-weight: 400;">requires</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> special counsels to notify an attorney general of any “significant events.”</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Due to Justice Department practices, Pearce would not put on the record whether the history-making federal indictment of a former U.S. president amounted to a “significant event.” The prosecutor’s lack of a “yes” or “no” answer also averted a potentially major headline.</span></p> <h2><b>Trump Defense ‘Flip-Flopped’ on Special Counsel in Funding Attack</b></h2> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">In questioning Smith’s funding, Trump’s legal team took the opposite tactic: Bove argued that, if Smith is in fact accountable to Garland under well-established </span><a href="https://edition.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/stories/1999/06/24/ic.reno/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">regulations promulgated</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> by former Attorney General Janet Reno, then the special counsel is insufficiently “independent” to benefit from a permanent and indefinite appropriation. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">On Monday, Cannon called out what she described as the “tension” between the two arguments.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“You’re saying the special counsel is taking inconsistent positions, but aren’t you just doing the same thing, flip-flopped?” the judge asked.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">When responding to the argument, Pearce acknowledged neither side staked out a fully consistent position.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“I think that’s true of both sides of this matter,” Pearce said.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">But Pearce added that was inherent in the special counsel’s role — and how Reno designed the regulations with an eye toward “striking the right balance between accountability and independence.”</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">However, Cannon appeared troubled by the “limitless” nature of the appropriations, in the wake of the Supreme Court’s </span><a href="https://www.supremecourt.gov/opinions/23pdf/22-448_o7jp.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">recent ruling</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> in </span><i><span style="font-weight: 400;">Consumer Financial Protection Bureau v. Community Financial Services Association of America, Limited</span></i><span style="font-weight: 400;">. She noted that the Court found the appropriations clause authorizes the CFPB to draw public funds from a particular source ”in an amount not exceeding an inflation-adjusted cap.” Smith’s funding has no cap at all. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Performing an on-the-spot audit of the special counsel, Cannon took out one of Smith’s disclosures in court and asked for clarification. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Pearce urged Cannon to allow for further briefing if she is seriously considering granting Trump’s motion, and he said that the Justice Department is prepared to replace their appropriation from a separate $1 billion pool in their budget. He also emphasized the prosecution’s view that precedent and tradition favors them. Roger Stone and Hunter Biden both failed in attacks on the special counsel’s funding, though those cases are not binding on Cannon’s jurisdiction, and were decided before the Supreme Court’s ruling upholding the CFPB’s funding scheme. Eight special counsels have drawn from permanent and indefinite appropriations, all without incident and with “congressional acquiescence,” Pearce noted.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“The doctrine of congressional acquiescence is not the most robust doctrine,” Cannon countered.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Trump’s attorneys, for their part, appear ready to exploit any tension they have ginned up through their challenge to Smith’s authority. On Monday afternoon, Cannon will hear arguments on whether to limit Trump’s ability to comment on the case. Last month, Trump  </span><a href="https://apnews.com/article/fact-check-trump-fbi-maralago-search-672e97d19032de0947f108e4911f191e"><span style="font-weight: 400;">falsely claimed</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> that the FBI was authorized to shoot him during its search of Mar-a-Lago. Bove questioned whether Garland signed off on that search warrant request, as well, and if prosecutors must finance the case from another pool, Bove indicated there may be a political fallout. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Cannon declined to issue a decision from the bench by the time of publication.</span></p> <h2><b>Cannon Hits a Crossroad</b></h2> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">As she considers her ruling, Cannon may have good reason to avoid straying too far out of step from her peers and tradition, particularly with potential appeals of any decision on the horizon, a process which has not turned out well for her thus far.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">In the investigation predating Trump’s first federal indictment, the 11th Circuit </span><a href="https://s3.documentcloud.org/documents/23323385/trump-ca11-2022-12-01.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">reversed</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> Cannon’s </span><a href="https://www.documentcloud.org/documents/22275109-specialmaster_order0905?responsive=1&amp;title=1"><span style="font-weight: 400;">decision to block</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> prosecutors from using certain evidence for their active investigation pending a review of the files the FBI seized for attorney-client privilege and executive privilege. Two of the judges who unanimously reversed her in the scathing ruling were also Trump appointees. That background, along with several of Cannon’s </span><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/89121/clearinghouse-mar-a-lago-documents-case-southern-district-of-florida/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">pre-trial decisions</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> since that time, have amplified concerns about her experience and apparent deference to the president who appointed her. Cannon’s appointment </span><a href="https://www.miamiherald.com/news/politics-government/article247152399.html"><span style="font-weight: 400;">rushed through the Senate</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> along partisan lines during Trump’s lame-duck session. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">On the cusp of the hearings, the </span><i><span style="font-weight: 400;">New York Times</span></i><span style="font-weight: 400;"> published an </span><a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2024/06/20/us/politics/aileen-cannon-trump-classified-documents.html"><span style="font-weight: 400;">extraordinary account</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> of how Cannon insisted on keeping the case assigned to her docket, over the advice of two senior judges from her district. According to the </span><i><span style="font-weight: 400;">Times</span></i><span style="font-weight: 400;">, one was the Southern District of Florida’s Chief Judge Cecilia M. Altonaga, a George W. Bush appointee. The other was unidentified. The article did not articulate these judges’ concerns, though they presented perceptions of Cannon’s bias and her relative inexperience as context. Some legal analysts, like former FBI general counsel Andrew Weissmann, have opined that another reversible ruling would hand prosecutors an attempt to try to disqualify her from the case, or simply </span><a href="https://www.newsweek.com/doj-should-do-four-things-aileen-cannon-dismisses-trump-case-jack-smith-eliason-1916175"><span style="font-weight: 400;">pass off the indictment</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> to the Southern District of Florida, for reassignment to another judge. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The structure of the hearing itself stoked a separate controversy: Cannon scheduled two days of arguments over an issue widely viewed in the legal community as Trump’s moonshot. What’s more, the judge signaled a willingness to consider that challenge seriously by allowing third parties to weigh in on the matter. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Those </span><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/03/JustSecurityMar-a-LagoTrumpClearinghouse-Former-AG-Meese-et-al.-motion-leave-participate-amicus-curiae-supporting-MTD-unlawful-appointmentfunding-Jack-Smith-briefproposed-order-March-5-2024.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">supporting</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> Trump’s attack on the special counsel’s authority include a broad array of conservative figures and groups, including Citizens United, the group whose attack on Hillary Clinton produced the watershed Supreme Court campaign finance ruling; the Landmark Legal Foundation, and right-leaning attorneys Steven Calabresi, Seth Barrett Tillman, former U.S. Attorney General Edwin Meese III, and former federal judge Michael Mukasey. More than a dozen scholars and the group State Democracy Defenders Action oppose the motion, and their </span><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/04/JustSecurityMar-a-LagoTrumpClearinghouse%E2%80%94Constitutional-lawyers-et-al-motion-leave-file-amicus-brief-opposing-Trump-MTD-appointmentfunding-Jack-Smith-exhibited-briefApril12024e-filedApril-3.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">legal brief</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> notes how rare it is for any third parties — for or against Trump — to have a hearing during pre-trial proceedings in a criminal case at all. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Citing the website </span><a href="https://empiricalscotus.com/2017/01/04/amicus-oral-argument/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Empirical SCOTUS</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">, Trump’s opponents represented by attorney Matthew Seligman pointed to Supreme Court data for reference. From 1980 through 2015, SCOTUS permitted non-governmental third parties to participate in only nine out of 4,045 oral arguments as </span><i><span style="font-weight: 400;">amicus curiae</span></i><span style="font-weight: 400;">. Political groups weighing in on pre-trial hearings on a trial court level are even more unusual. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Recently, Cannon appears to have pulled up the drawbridge for amicus filings. She rejected a series of similar requests by a group of Republican attorneys general and a pro-Trump advocacy group affiliated with the former president’s adviser Stephen Miller.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Whether this represents a shift in Cannon’s handling of the case remains to be seen, and she did not immediately rule on the issue before her. Legal observers will be sure to closely watch not only how she rules, but also the timing of her decision and how it addresses Trump’s broader effort to delegitimize the special counsel appointed to prosecute him.</span></p> <h6><em>IMAGE: The Alto Lee Adams Sr. United States Courthouse, where U.S. District Judge Aileen Cannon is holding a hearing regarding former President Donald Trump on May 22, 2024, in Fort Pierce, Florida. (Photo by Joe Raedle via Getty Images)</em></h6> <p>The post <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/97090/trump-special-counsel-challenge/">Trump’s Special Counsel Hearings: Judge Appears Concerned Over Jack Smith’s Funding</a> appeared first on <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org">Just Security</a>.</p> Courts Litigation Accountability Appointments Clause Donald Trump Mar-a-Lago Special Counsel Jack Smith Adam Klasfeld The D Brief: Israel eyes ‘Phase C’; Ike ends Red Sea ops; B-21’s cost cleared to rise; Meet SecDef’s chief-of-staff pick; And a bit more. https://www.defenseone.com/threats/2024/06/the-d-brief-june-24-2024/397578/ Defense One - All Content urn:uuid:6ef1cff6-8b36-56e9-c5cf-64934c3dcf6c Mon, 24 Jun 2024 11:13:46 -0400 Threats Ben Watson and Bradley Peniston The price of each B-21 bomber is likely going up https://www.defenseone.com/business/2024/06/price-each-b-21-bomber-likely-going/397576/ Defense One - All Content urn:uuid:c24e79b1-f001-0661-cf44-7b07206de996 Mon, 24 Jun 2024 10:37:10 -0400 The Air Force has agreed to a higher cost ceiling after Northrop took a loss on fixed-price lots. Business Audrey Decker U.S. Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin speaks at the B-21 Raider unveiling ceremony at Northrop Grumman's Air Force Plant 42 in Palmdale, California, on December 2, 2022. FREDERIC J. BROWN/AFP via Getty Images The Missing AI Conversation We Need to Have: Environmental Impacts of Generative AI https://www.justsecurity.org/96534/environmental-impacts-of-ai/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=environmental-impacts-of-ai Just Security urn:uuid:25e4bc49-e0eb-b50e-27db-6b27d7f11f7f Mon, 24 Jun 2024 09:00:11 -0400 <p>AI risks compounding environmental harms to our planet long before it can live up to its much-hyped potential. </p> <p>The post <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/96534/environmental-impacts-of-ai/">The Missing AI Conversation We Need to Have: Environmental Impacts of Generative AI</a> appeared first on <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org">Just Security</a>.</p> <p><em>Editor’s Note: This article is the next installment of our <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/96881/symposium-on-ai-and-human-rights/">Symposium on AI and Human Rights</a>, co-hosted with the Promise Institute for Human Rights at UCLA School of Law.</em></p> <p>Since ChatGPT <a href="https://openai.com/index/chatgpt/">launched</a> in 2022, generative AI has gone from the province of computer nerds to part of mainstream discourse. The public conversation lurches between casting generative AI as a silver bullet that will help us <a href="https://www.forbes.com/sites/bernardmarr/2023/09/20/breakthrough-in-cancer-treatment-the-role-of-generative-ai-in-drug-development/">cure cancer</a> and <a href="https://www.nextgov.com/ideas/2020/12/how-ai-will-help-us-mars-and-beyond/170935/">colonize Mars</a>, to placing it on par with <a href="https://www.safe.ai/statement-on-ai-risk">nuclear weaponry</a> in its potential to destroy humanity. Either way, few are left doubting that generative AI is an existential technology. And that is probably true – but not necessarily for the reasons that the public is hearing about.</p> <p>The computing power required to build generative AI demands quantities of energy and water on a scale that can cause severe and long-term damage to the environment. This makes the development of generative AI a human rights issue. As normative work by <a href="https://www.ohchr.org/en/special-procedures/sr-environment">UN Special Rapporteurs</a> has underscored, the <a href="https://www.unep.org/news-and-stories/story/historic-move-un-declares-healthy-environment-human-right">UN General Assembly</a> has declared, and <a href="https://www.refworld.org/jurisprudence/caselaw/iacrthr/2017/en/123157">human rights courts</a> have increasingly affirmed, all humans have the right to a healthy environment.</p> <p>If AI development continues on its current trajectory, it will compound the environmental harm we are already doing to our planet, long before it gets the chance to show us whether it can live up to its much-hyped potential. The real question then, is whether such environmental harms – and the human rights violations that are likely to come with them – are worth the gamble.</p> <p>For a public that is used to seeing <a href="https://time.com/magazine/us/6256547/february-27th-2023-vol-201-no-7-u-s/">AI coverage </a>paired with futuristic imagery, this re-framing around AI’s immediate and tangible environmental harm is as jarring as it is urgent. People must be told that the computational horsepower needed to develop generative AI, demands <a href="https://www.iea.org/reports/electricity-2024/executive-summary">quantities of energy</a> akin to that consumed by entire nation states. People need to be reminded that “the cloud” is nothing more than a network of warehouses filled with millions of square feet of computers; keeping these computers cool enough to do the data processing generative AI is predicted to require by the year 2027, will consume more than four times as much <a href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2304.03271">water</a> as Denmark currently consumes annually.</p> <p>Earlier this year, data pioneer Kate Crawford published an <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-024-00478-x">article in <em>Nature</em></a> highlighting the latest research on AI’s environmental impact. She pointed out that, as bad as the picture currently looks, it may well be even worse given the lack of transparency on environmental costs throughout the AI sector. To date, the Biden administration has not tried to get oversight in this sphere, but its efforts to understand the environmental impact of bitcoin were blocked by a <a href="https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5f6bb4745db17928cd75bf41/t/65e2457bf669bb09f217e26a/1709327739294/Agreed+Order+Halting+Survey.pdf">U.S. district court order</a>, in a reminder of how tough it is for regulators to overcome industry claims of proprietary interest.</p> <p>Researchers like Crawford, and tech justice leaders like <a href="https://www.technologyreview.com/2020/12/04/1013294/google-ai-ethics-research-paper-forced-out-timnit-gebru/">Tinmit Gerbu</a>, have been doing their utmost to raise the alarm. So why does the burgeoning public discourse on generative AI remain so untethered from the hard facts about its environmental costs?</p> <p>Part of the answer comes from the tendency to turn to AI industry experts to narrate fast-paced developments. Whether due to the line of questioning pursued by journalists, the direction that tech CEOs like <a href="https://time.com/collection/time100-companies-2023/6284870/openai-disrupters/">Sam Altman</a> steer toward, or some symbiotic dance between them, the resulting reporting features yet-to-happen scenarios of <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2023/07/11/opinion/ezra-klein-podcast-demis-hassabis.html">salvation</a> or <a href="https://edition.cnn.com/opinions/our-ai-future-promise-and-peril">doom</a>, which then leaves little space to discuss the environmental threat already underway.</p> <p>Another piece of the puzzle stems from the fact that the data centers housing AI&#8217;s computing power might as well be in an actual cloud for the percentage of the population that ever gets to see them. Seeking cheap land and securable sites, major tech companies generally locate their data centers away from the public eye. In lieu of a visit, curious outsiders are invited to a company-narrated tour. “Join us as we venture into places that very few people ever see firsthand,” advertises <a href="https://www.google.com/about/datacenters/podcast/">Google’s own podcast</a>.</p> <p>What public reporting has come out from these and other data center locations suggests <a href="https://www.scidev.net/global/scidev-net-investigates/data-centres-straining-water-resources-as-ai-swells/">environmental</a> <a href="https://www.nbcnews.com/tech/internet/drought-stricken-communities-push-back-against-data-centers-n1271344">tensions</a> are already in play; some in local communities are questioning whether the economic benefits of having a data center in their backyard are worth the strain on local water resources. Here too human rights inequities are ever-present. As highlighted by work on “<a href="https://www.ohchr.org/sites/default/files/2022-03/Annex1_to_A_HRC_49_53.pdf">sacrifice zones</a>,” the environmental impacts of building out generative AI are unlikely to be <a href="https://www.scidev.net/global/scidev-net-investigates/data-centres-straining-water-resources-as-ai-swells/">evenly distributed</a> across human populations.</p> <p>The narrow demographic of those who get to speak about AI in the mainstream media, combined with the inaccessibility of data centers, has now enabled a narrative that turns AI’s environmental costs on their head. In January, the World Economic Forum highlighted the “<a href="https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2024/02/ai-combat-climate-change/#:~:text=The%20use%20of%20artificial%20intelligence,the%20World%20Economic%20Forum%20says.">transformative potential</a>” of AI to combat climate change. The <a href="https://www.unep.org/news-and-stories/story/how-artificial-intelligence-helping-tackle-environmental-challenges">United Nations Environmental Program</a> has put out similar coverage.</p> <p>It is true there are many ways that generative AI could enhance our ability to understand and respond to climate and environmental challenges. But as long as the control of generative AI’s development is primarily in the hands of those grounded in the culture and priorities of Silicon Valley, there is no reason to believe that these tools will be designed around the needs of the most vulnerable populations on the <a href="https://www.un.org/en/small-islands-on-the-frontlines#:~:text=At%20the%20Frontlines%20of%20Climate%20Change&amp;text=Climate%20change%20is%20threatening%20around,rise%20represents%20an%20existential%20threat.">frontlines</a> of the impact of climate change. (Indeed, if the history of social media development has taught us anything, it is that those who “move fast and break things” tend to develop products embedded with <a href="https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3905351">assumptions</a> that rarely hold true for the many <a href="https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3426544">billions</a> of people who live outside their very narrow segment of the Global North demographic.)</p> <p>Either way, generative AI’s potential is just that &#8211; a future promise that may or may not be realized. On balance, the most likely outcome is that generative AI will bring both enormous gains, especially to those who already have access to political and economic power, as well as harmful unintended consequences. In the meantime, what we know for sure is that the effort to try to deliver on AI’s potential will place escalating demands on an overburdened planet, with impacts felt first by those who are already marginalized &#8211; at least until we achieve a clean energy transition for all.</p> <p>Of course, U.S. tech companies have laudable <a href="https://news.microsoft.com/europe/features/as-the-world-goes-digital-datacenters-that-make-the-cloud-work-look-to-renewable-energy-sources/">renewable energy</a> goals and impressive <a href="https://sustainability.google/operating-sustainably/water-stewardship/">water replenishment</a> targets. But these are undertaken on a voluntary basis. No one should harbor any illusion that in a conflict between self-enforced environmental targets and the cut-throat competition to lead the field of generative AI, the environment &#8211; and the human rights of already marginalized communities most affected by environmental degradation – will come in second place.</p> <p>How then to rewrite the existing narrative? The media has a responsibility here. The next time a podcast devotes an episode to AI, they could headline an earth scientist as their guest. The slew of articles that will inevitably follow OpenAI’s recent launch of <a href="https://www.cnbc.com/2024/05/13/openai-launches-new-ai-model-and-desktop-version-of-chatgpt.html">Chat GPT-4o</a>, or its next demonstration of <a href="https://openai.com/index/sora/">Sora</a>, the text-to-video model it launched earlier this year, could each open by reminding readers of the energy and water required to bring these developments to life.</p> <p>Politicians too must lead by example. Members of Congress can take the opportunities they have to question AI industry leaders, in order to extract answers about the environmental costs of generative AI development. And, more holistically, lawmakers can advance legislation to bring public interest transparency and guardrails to what is presently a self-regulated space. (<a href="https://www.markey.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/artificial_intelligence_environmental_impacts_act_of_2024_-_020124pdf.pdf">The Artificial Intelligence Environmental Impacts Act of 2024</a>, introduced by Senator Markey in February, is a step in the right direction.)</p> <p>Ultimately, all of us can help. When our families, or colleagues, question whether generative AI will see robots taking over from humans, we can redirect the question:  Will our planet be made more or less habitable for humans by the effort to develop generative AI?</p> <h6><em>IMAGE: A Data Center Manager walks down the aisle of a Facebook server room. (Photo by JONATHAN NACKSTRAND/AFP via Getty Images)</em></h6> <p>The post <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/96534/environmental-impacts-of-ai/">The Missing AI Conversation We Need to Have: Environmental Impacts of Generative AI</a> appeared first on <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org">Just Security</a>.</p> Artificial Intelligence Climate Change Cyber Featured Articles Human Rights Technology AI Environmental Harm Guest Author Rebecca Hamilton Early Edition: June 24, 2024 https://www.justsecurity.org/97085/early-edition-june-24-2024/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=early-edition-june-24-2024 Just Security urn:uuid:55fdcfb4-ece5-d6b4-0001-ff601734ba4f Mon, 24 Jun 2024 07:56:02 -0400 <p>Signup to receive the Early Edition in your inbox here. A curated weekday guide to major news and developments over the weekend. Here’s today’s news: GLOBAL DEVELOPMENTS Gunmen attacked synagogues and churches in two cities in southern Russia yesterday, killing at least 15 police officers, an Orthodox priest, and four civilians. The attacks took place in [&#8230;]</p> <p>The post <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/97085/early-edition-june-24-2024/">Early Edition: June 24, 2024</a> appeared first on <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org">Just Security</a>.</p> <p>Signup to receive the Early Edition in your inbox <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/early-edition-signup/">here</a>.</p> <p>A curated weekday guide to major news and developments over the weekend. Here’s today’s news:</p> <p><b><i>GLOBAL DEVELOPMENTS</i></b></p> <p><b>Gunmen attacked synagogues and churches in two cities in southern Russia yesterday, killing at least 15 police officers, an Orthodox priest, and four civilians.</b> <span style="font-weight: 400;">The attacks took place in the republic of Dagestan, a predominantly Muslim region in the North Caucasus that has a history of separatist and militant violence. The motives and identities of the gunmen were unclear, and there was no claim of responsibility. </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">Russian law enforcement agencies told state media the gunmen were “adherents of an international terrorist organization.” </span><a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2024/06/23/europe/dagestan-synagogue-attack-russia-intl-latam/index.html"><span style="font-weight: 400;">CNN</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> reports; Anton Troianovski</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> and </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">Ivan Nechepurenko</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">report for the </span><a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2024/06/23/world/europe/russia-attack-dagestan.html"><span style="font-weight: 400;">New York Times</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">. </span></p> <p><b>A U.S. aircraft carrier arrived in South Korea today for a show of force as Washington, Seoul, and Tokyo released a joint statement condemning the deepening military ties between North Korea and Russia.</b><span style="font-weight: 400;"> Brad Lendon reports for </span><a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2024/06/24/asia/us-aircraft-carrier-south-korea-intl-hnk-ml/index.html"><span style="font-weight: 400;">CNN</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b>Violent protests returned to the French overseas territory of New Caledonia today, with pro-independence protesters burning police vehicles and blocking roads,</b><span style="font-weight: 400;"> authorities said. Anger has erupted over the extradition to France of jailed protest leader Christian Tein following his arrest last week. </span><a href="https://www.reuters.com/world/violent-protests-return-new-caledonia-pro-independence-leader-extradited-2024-06-24/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Reuters</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> reports.</span></p> <p><b>U.K. government officials reportedly attempted to suppress criticism of the United Arab Emirates’ alleged role in arming Sudan’s Rapid Support Forces,</b><span style="font-weight: 400;"> sources say. The paramilitary group has been accused of carrying out crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing by rights groups. A U.K. government spokesperson strongly denied the claims, saying, “</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">These accusations are categorically untrue.”</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> Mark Townsend reports for </span><a href="https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/article/2024/jun/24/uk-allegedly-suppressing-criticism-uae-arming-sudan-rsf-militia-genocide-darfur"><span style="font-weight: 400;">The Guardian</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b>Iran and Bahrain have agreed to talk about how they might resume bilateral relations after nearly eight years, Iranian media reported today.</b><span style="font-weight: 400;"> The report said both sides agreed on creating a framework to restart dialogue on resuming diplomatic ties. </span><a href="https://apnews.com/article/iran-bahrain-diplomatic-ties-saudi-relations-4760151af427467171ef53c25e8b3de4"><span style="font-weight: 400;">AP News</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> reports.</span></p> <p><b>A senior U.S. diplomat held talks in Vietnam on Saturday and said that bilateral trust was at an “all-time high,” days after Russian president Vladimir Putin’s state visit to Hanoi. </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">Aniruddha Ghosal reports for </span><a href="https://apnews.com/article/vietnam-us-russia-kritenbrink-cc1873bee97218b50013bfdc3fdc5c10"><span style="font-weight: 400;">AP News</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b>North Macedonia’s center-right leader secured parliamentary approval to lead a new coalition government in yesterday’s vote. </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">Konstantin Testorides reports for </span><a href="https://apnews.com/article/north-macedonia-mickoski-government-8021f259cd9b8fd3f128f35f533ab481"><span style="font-weight: 400;">AP News</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b><i>ISRAEL-HAMAS WAR</i></b></p> <p><b>Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu said yesterday that the “intense phase of the war with Hamas is about to end,” </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">and that the military’s focus could then shift to the Israel-Lebanon border.</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">He added, “It doesn’t mean that the war is going to end, but the war in its current stage is going to end in Rafah.” Netanyahu also said he is ready to make “a partial deal” with Hamas to release some hostages, but repeated his stance that the war will continue after a ceasefire “to achieve the goal of eliminating” Hamas. Hamas replied to Netanyahu’s remarks, saying his bid for a partial deal was a “clear rejection” of the proposal advanced by President Biden. Lauren Izso and Mohammed Tawfeeq report for </span><a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2024/06/23/middleeast/intense-phase-hamas-war-end-netanyahu-lebanon-intl-latam/index.html"><span style="font-weight: 400;">CNN</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">; Chantal Da Silva reports for </span><a href="https://www.nbcnews.com/news/world/intense-phase-israel-war-hamas-end-netanyahu-cease-fire-hezbollah-rcna158531"><span style="font-weight: 400;">NBC News</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b>A far-right Israeli official described a secret government bid to cement control of the occupied West Bank. </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">At a private event earlier this month, Bezalel Smotrich told settlers about a covert effort </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">to irreversibly change the way the territory is governed to secure Israel’s control over it, without being accused of formally annexing it. </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">In a taped recording, Smotrich can be heard suggesting </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">the </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">goal was to prevent the West Bank from becoming part of a Palestinian state. Natan Odenheimer, Ronen Bergman and Patrick Kingsley report for the </span><a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2024/06/21/world/middleeast/israel-west-bank-netanyahu-bezalel-smotrich.html"><span style="font-weight: 400;">New York Times</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b>Israeli airstrikes on four neighborhoods in Gaza City killed at least 38 people on Saturday, </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">the Gaza civil defense force said.</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">The bombardment hit residential buildings, with significant damage and a massive crater reported in the Shati refugee camp. In a statement, the IDF said it “struck two Hamas military infrastructure sites in the area of Gaza City,” without elaborating. Victoria Bisset, Mohamad El Chamaa and Lior Soroka report for the </span><a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2024/06/22/israel-hamas-war-news-gaza-palestine/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Washington Post</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b>Eight Palestinians were killed yesterday in an Israeli airstrike on a training college near Gaza City being used to distribute aid by the U.N. Palestinian refugee agency, UNRWA. </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">The Israeli military said the site, a former UNRWA headquarters, had been used by Hamas and Islamic Jihad militants, adding that precautionary measures were taken to reduce the risk of harming civilians. Nidal Al-Mughrabi reports for </span><a href="https://www.reuters.com/world/middle-east/israeli-tanks-edge-rafahs-mawasi-refuge-zone-residents-say-2024-06-23/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Reuters</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b>Israel said it was investigating an airstrike that killed at least 22 people near a Red Cross office in Gaza. </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">T</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">he International Committee of the Red Cross said that “heavy-caliber” projectiles fell meters away from an office and residences for the aid group.</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> Adam Rasgon and Anjana Sankar report for the </span><a href="https://www.nytimes.com/live/2024/06/22/world/israel-gaza-war-hamas/israel-says-it-is-investigating-a-strike-that-killed-dozens-near-several-red-cross-office-in-gaza?smid=url-share"><span style="font-weight: 400;">New York Times</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">; Robert Plummer reports for </span><a href="https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/articles/cmjj6ej3ne1o"><span style="font-weight: 400;">BBC News</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b>The IDF said it is investigating an incident in which soldiers strapped a wounded Palestinian man to the hood of a military vehicle during a raid in the West Bank city of Jenin on Saturday.</b><span style="font-weight: 400;"> The U.N. special rapporteur on the occupied Palestinian territories condemned the incident and accused the IDF of using the wounded man as a “human shield.” Peter Beaumont reports for </span><a href="https://www.theguardian.com/world/article/2024/jun/23/idf-investigates-soldier-tied-palestinian-man-to-vehicle-bonnet"><span style="font-weight: 400;">The Guardian</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b><i>ISRAEL-HEZBOLLAH TENSIONS</i></b></p> <p><b>The Israeli military said it killed a militant deep inside Lebanese territory in an airstrike on Saturday.</b><span style="font-weight: 400;"> In a </span><a href="https://x.com/IDF/status/1804485553707962683"><span style="font-weight: 400;">post</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> on X, the IDF said the “central terrorist operative” was “responsible for weapons supplies for the Hamas and Jamaa Islamiya terrorist organizations in Lebanon, as well as the development of terrorist infrastructure in the area.” The </span><a href="https://www.nytimes.com/live/2024/06/23/world/israel-gaza-war-hamas/a-drone-attack-damages-a-ship-in-the-red-sea-and-other-news?smid=url-share"><span style="font-weight: 400;">New York Times</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> reports.</span></p> <p><b>Israeli defense minister Yoav Gallant arrived in Washington yesterday for meetings with U.S. officials amid increasing concern that border clashes with Lebanon’s Hezbollah could escalate into all-out war.</b><span style="font-weight: 400;"> Hezbollah released a video on Saturday threatening to attack key Israeli buildings if a full-scale conflict were to break out in Lebanon. Sarah Dadouch, Kyle Melnick and Niha Masih report for the </span><a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2024/06/23/israel-hamas-war-news-gaza-palestine/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Washington Post</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b><i>RUSSIA-UKRAINE DEVELOPMENTS</i></b></p> <p><b>Russia blamed Washington and Kyiv equally for a missile attack on Crimea in which U.S.-supplied missiles killed four people and injured 151. </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">The defense ministry also said that U.S. specialists set the missiles’ flight coordinates on the basis of U.S. intelligence, meaning the United States was directly responsible. Russia has summoned the U.S. ambassador and today vowed retaliation for the strike. Yohannes Lowe reports for </span><a href="https://www.theguardian.com/world/live/2024/jun/24/russia-ukraine-war-live-russia-claims-us-responsible-for-ukrainian-attack-on-crimean-peninsula"><span style="font-weight: 400;">The Guardian</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">; Yuliya Talmazan reports for </span><a href="https://www.nbcnews.com/news/world/russia-blames-us-ukrainian-strikes-crimea-rcna158471"><span style="font-weight: 400;">NBC News</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b>Ukrainian energy facilities came under a “massive” overnight attack from Russia, Ukraine’s energy ministry said on Saturday,</b><span style="font-weight: 400;"> describing it as the eighth time Russia has launched an attack on energy infrastructure facilities in the past three months. Later on Saturday, officials in Kharkiv said Russian strikes killed three people and injured at least 18. Jacqueline Howard reports for </span><a href="https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/articles/czvvj4j4p8ro"><span style="font-weight: 400;">BBC News</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">; Leonie Cater reports for </span><a href="https://www.politico.eu/article/russia-massive-attack-putin-moscow-ukraine-energy-facilities/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">POLITICO</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b><i>DOMESTIC DEVELOPMENTS</i></b><span style="font-weight: 400;"><br /> </span></p> <p><b>A Nevada judge dismissed an indictment on Friday against six Republicans accused of submitting certificates to Congress falsely declaring former President Trump the winner of the state’s 2020 presidential election. </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">The Nevada Attorney General said he will launch an appeal against the ruling and take the issue to the state Supreme Court. Ken Ritter reports for </span><a href="https://apnews.com/article/nevada-republicans-fake-electors-indictment-trump-9d06ffc619314f85e0bdb321b820a557"><span style="font-weight: 400;">AP News</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b><i>MILITARY CONFLICT WITH THE HOUTHIS</i></b></p> <p><b>A claim by Yemen&#8217;s Houthi group on Saturday that its forces had attacked a U.S. aircraft carrier in the Red Sea is false, </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">two U.S. officials told </span><a href="https://www.reuters.com/world/middle-east/houthi-claim-attack-us-aircraft-carrier-false-us-officials-say-2024-06-22/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Reuters</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">. Separately, U.S. forces destroyed three Houthi vessels over the weekend, U.S. Central Command </span><a href="https://www.reuters.com/world/us-military-says-it-destroyed-three-houthi-vessels-red-sea-2024-06-23/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">said</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">. </span></p> <p>The post <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/97085/early-edition-june-24-2024/">Early Edition: June 24, 2024</a> appeared first on <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org">Just Security</a>.</p> Daily News Roundup Beatrice Yahia The Just Security Podcast: Attacks on Health in Armed Conflict https://www.justsecurity.org/97079/podcast-health-attacks-armed-conflict/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=podcast-health-attacks-armed-conflict Just Security urn:uuid:1b154780-a85b-2e8f-cc15-571b418313ca Mon, 24 Jun 2024 07:52:13 -0400 <p>An expert team from Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) and local partners unpacks patterns of attacks on health care in armed conflicts.</p> <p>The post <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/97079/podcast-health-attacks-armed-conflict/">The Just Security Podcast: Attacks on Health in Armed Conflict</a> appeared first on <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org">Just Security</a>.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">On a Wednesday night in November 2022, surgeons at the Heart Institute in Kyiv were in the middle of an operation when the power went out. The backup generators kept live-saving equipment running as nurses held flashlights over the operating table.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Russian attacks on Ukraine’s electrical grid and energy infrastructure, along with direct attacks on health care facilities and workers, are taking a massive toll on the country’s health care system. And Ukraine isn’t alone. The latest annual <a href="https://insecurityinsight.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/05/2023-SHCC-Critical-Conditions.pdf">report</a> from the <a href="https://www.safeguardinghealth.org/">Safeguarding Health in Conflict Coalition</a> identified more than 2,500 incidents of violence against, or obstruction of, health care in conflicts during 2023, a 25 percent increase from 2022.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Those incidents, which span from Myanmar to Mali, include violent attacks on health care workers and facilities, the use of drones to target hospitals and ambulances, and the occupation of hospitals to conduct military operations. At the same time, many attacks are carried out with impunity.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">How should the international community respond to these attacks? What can be done to prevent them and to promote accountability?</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Joining the show to unpack patterns of attacks on health care in armed conflicts is an expert team from the nonprofit organization <a href="https://secure.phr.org/secure/restore-and-defend-human-rights?ms=FY24_Evergreen_PaidSearchAd_Google&amp;utm_medium=Search&amp;utm_source=Google&amp;utm_content=Brand&amp;utm_term=Fundraising&amp;utm_campaign=FY24_BrandedSearch&amp;CID=701f40000018pCHAAY&amp;ms=FY20_SEM_GoogleAd&amp;gad_source=1&amp;gclid=Cj0KCQjwsuSzBhCLARIsAIcdLm5Txted6Xgu_bhMKoEgB8WiU4uCBDE08yyQZFV1wxHa3pyy-hEHdIAaAhkQEALw_wcB">Physicians for Human Rights</a> (PHR) and their local partners. PHR forensically documents human rights abuses, develops capacity in local communities, and advocates for justice around the world.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Dr. Houssam al-Nahhas is PHR’s Middle East and North Africa (MENA) researcher where he documents attacks on health care, including unlawful detention of health care workers, and advocates for access to health.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Dr. Neema Rukunghu Nadine-Néné is a gynecologist at Panzi hospital in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and an expert trainer on the care of survivors of sexual violence for PHR and the <a href="https://panzifoundation.org/">Panzi Foundation</a>.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Uliana Poltavets is PHR’s Ukraine Emergency Response Coordinator where she focuses on documenting attacks on health care in Ukraine since the onset of Russia’s full-scale invasion of the country in February 2022.</p> <div> <p><span lang="EN">Dr. Betsir “B” Zemen is an Organizational Psychologist and board member of the </span><span lang="EN"><a href="https://www.hpn4tigray.org/">Health Professionals Network for Tigray</a> (HPN4Tigray), a nonprofit, and non-partisan organization that is committed to improving access to health care.</span></p> <p>Listen to the episode by clicking below.</p> <p><a href="https://www.buzzsprout.com/2074610/15301154-attacks-on-health-in-armed-conflict"><img fetchpriority="high" decoding="async" class="alignnone size-full wp-image-97081" src="https://i0.wp.com/www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/06/Screenshot-2024-06-24-at-7.35.20 AM.png?resize=862%2C292&#038;ssl=1" alt="The episode title appears with sound waves behind it. " width="862" height="292" srcset="https://i0.wp.com/www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/06/Screenshot-2024-06-24-at-7.35.20 AM.png?w=862&amp;ssl=1 862w, https://i0.wp.com/www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/06/Screenshot-2024-06-24-at-7.35.20 AM.png?resize=300%2C102&amp;ssl=1 300w, https://i0.wp.com/www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/06/Screenshot-2024-06-24-at-7.35.20 AM.png?resize=768%2C260&amp;ssl=1 768w" sizes="(max-width: 862px) 100vw, 862px" data-recalc-dims="1" /></a></p> </div> <p>The post <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/97079/podcast-health-attacks-armed-conflict/">The Just Security Podcast: Attacks on Health in Armed Conflict</a> appeared first on <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org">Just Security</a>.</p> Atrocities Civilian Harm Diplomacy Humanitarian International and Foreign International Justice Israel-Hamas War Local Voices Russia-Ukraine United Nations Accountability Critical Infrastructure Gaza Geneva Conventions health healthcare International Humanitarian Law (IHL) International Law Just Security Podcast Protection of civilians Russia Russia-Ukraine War Syria Tigray Ukraine World Health Organization Houssam al-Nahhas F.B.I. Offers Reward for Information About New Mexico Wildfires https://www.nytimes.com/2024/06/23/us/new-mexico-wildfires-intentional.html NYT > Federal Bureau of Investigation urn:uuid:4d1961d9-3b48-55ad-2095-c4482f7ff4b8 Sun, 23 Jun 2024 22:00:08 -0400 The agency said it was offering up to $10,000 for information that leads to the arrest and conviction of those “responsible for starting the fires.” New Mexico Federal Bureau of Investigation Albuquerque (NM) Wildfires Evacuations and Evacuees Heat and Heat Waves Alexandra E. Petri WEAPONS: US Military Issues Switchblades to Everyone http://www.strategypage.com/htmw/htweap/articles/202406240254.aspx StrategyPage.com urn:uuid:09036ca8-9523-cfd0-5043-7524bd6d3a85 Sun, 23 Jun 2024 20:02:54 -0400 ELECTRONIC WEAPONS: EW Disrupts Life in Europe and Middle East http://www.strategypage.com/htmw/htecm/articles/202406240133.aspx StrategyPage.com urn:uuid:d61b84bb-4284-f352-40cd-a8f15562e396 Sun, 23 Jun 2024 20:01:33 -0400 Ukraine Urges West to Allow Use of Weapons to Hit Russian Air Bases https://www.nytimes.com/2024/06/23/world/europe/ukraine-war-zelensky-us-weapons.html NYT > United States Defense and Military Forces urn:uuid:aa3f1dc2-e8b2-8a68-bb01-16615a50f0d8 Sun, 23 Jun 2024 11:10:12 -0400 After bombs again rained on Kharkiv, Ukraine’s second-biggest city, President Volodymyr Zelensky asked Western partners to permit the use of their weapons against air bases inside Russia. Russian Invasion of Ukraine (2022) Missiles and Missile Defense Systems International Relations Military Aircraft Zelensky, Volodymyr Kharkiv (Ukraine) Ukraine Russia United States Defense and Military Forces Arms Trade Marc Santora Nuclear Weapons Testing Has an Unending Legacy https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2024/06/20/opinion/nuclear-weapons-testing.html United States Defense and Military Forces urn:uuid:e7aac52b-07e6-4136-b208-f4fdaf44ae7b Sat, 22 Jun 2024 20:31:51 -0400 The U.S. bombings that ended World War II didn’t mark the close of atomic warfare. They were just the beginning. Nuclear Tests Nuclear Weapons Radiation Hazardous and Toxic Substances Cancer Marshall Islands Australia French Polynesia (France) United States Defense and Military Forces International Relations Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Arms Control and Limitation and Disarmament internal-open-access W.J. Hennigan SPACE: SpaceX Profitability Arrives Early http://www.strategypage.com/htmw/htspace/articles/202406230457.aspx StrategyPage.com urn:uuid:61e56e95-7f18-8f22-b31b-11852424e262 Sat, 22 Jun 2024 20:04:57 -0400 ATTRITION: Jet Fighter Attrition in Ukraine http://www.strategypage.com/htmw/htatrit/articles/202406230357.aspx StrategyPage.com urn:uuid:1be03fe3-0c0a-4ba2-4a7d-e3e4fa99de5e Sat, 22 Jun 2024 20:03:57 -0400 Digest of Recent Articles on Just Security (June 17-June 21) https://www.justsecurity.org/97026/digest-of-recent-articles-on-just-security-june-17-june-21/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=digest-of-recent-articles-on-just-security-june-17-june-21 Just Security urn:uuid:fbb70043-4d85-fb50-771f-08ae5e5eb29a Sat, 22 Jun 2024 09:00:45 -0400 <p>International Criminal Court • Sanctions Reform • AI and Human Rights • Social Media • Ukraine • China and Human Rights at the United Nations • Haiti</p> <p>The post <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/97026/digest-of-recent-articles-on-just-security-june-17-june-21/">Digest of Recent Articles on Just Security (June 17-June 21)</a> appeared first on <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org">Just Security</a>.</p> <p>A digest of recent analysis of national security and rights-related news and developments at <em>Just Security</em>.</p> <h2>International Criminal Court</h2> <ul> <li><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/96975/icc-prosecutor-policy-complementarity-cooperation/">Symposium: ICC Prosecutor Launches Policy on Complementarity and Cooperation</a><br /> by René Urueña</li> <li><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/96955/getting-the-balance-right-complementarity/">Two Tracks, One Destination? The Importance of Getting the Balance Right on Complementarity</a><br /> by Maria Elena Vignoli (<a href="https://x.com/me_vignoli">@me_vignoli</a>) and Danya Chaikel ( <a href="https://x.com/danyachaikel">@danyachaikel</a>)</li> <li><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/96914/armed-conflict-classification-icc-palestine-situation-gaza/">Armed Conflict Classification in the ICC Prosecutor’s Request for Arrest Warrants – Between International Humanitarian Law and International Criminal Law</a><br /> by Yahli Shereshevsky (<a href="https://x.com/YShereshevsky">@YShereshevsky</a>)</li> </ul> <h2>Sanctions Reform</h2> <ul> <li><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/96798/global-sanctions-reform-compact/">Toward a Global Sanctions Compact for Long-Overdue Reform</a><br /> by George A. Lopez, Alistair Millar and Erica Moret (<a href="https://x.com/DrEricaMoret">@DrEricaMoret</a>)</li> </ul> <h2>AI and Human Rights</h2> <ul> <li><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/96881/symposium-on-ai-and-human-rights/">Introducing the Symposium on AI and Human Rights</a><br /> by Jessica Peake</li> <li><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/96924/generative-ai-and-the-sale-of-digital-authenticity/">What Happens When We Get What We Pay for: Generative AI and the Sale of Digital Authenticity</a><br /> by Shannon Raj Singh (<a href="https://x.com/ShannonRSingh">@ShannonRSingh</a>)</li> <li><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/96731/truth-trust-and-ai-justice-and-accountability/">Truth, Trust, and AI: Justice and Accountability for International Crimes in the Era of Digital Deception</a><br /> by Raquel Vazquez Llorente (<a href="https://x.com/vazquezllorente">@vazquezllorente</a>)</li> </ul> <h2>Social Media</h2> <ul> <li><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/96932/social-media-companies-mass-shootings/">Can Families of Mass Shooting Victims Hold Social Media Companies Responsible for Violence?</a><br /> by Paul M. Barrett (<a href="https://x.com/AuthorPMBarrett">@AuthorPMBarrett</a>)</li> </ul> <h2>Ukraine</h2> <ul> <li><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/96943/sustainable-development-in-post-conflict-ukraine/">Looking Ahead from Lviv: Sustainable Development in a Post-Conflict Ukraine</a><br /> by Lucinda A. Low</li> </ul> <h2>China and Human Rights at the United Nations</h2> <ul> <li><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/96846/china-un-human-rights-sanctions/">UN Human Rights Expert Extends Chinese Government’s Impunity</a><br /> by Sophie Richardson (<a href="https://x.com/SophieDRich">@SophieDRich</a>)</li> </ul> <h2>Haiti</h2> <ul> <li><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/96835/haiti-government-gangs-security/">Hard Work Ahead for Haiti’s New Government as it Seeks to Restore Security with International Support</a><br /> by Keith Mines (<a href="https://x.com/Mineskw">@Mineskw</a>) and Kirk Randolph</li> </ul> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The post <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/97026/digest-of-recent-articles-on-just-security-june-17-june-21/">Digest of Recent Articles on Just Security (June 17-June 21)</a> appeared first on <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org">Just Security</a>.</p> Content Weekly Recap Just Security SPECIAL OPERATIONS: SOCOM Shrinks And Adapts http://www.strategypage.com/htmw/htsf/articles/202406220549.aspx StrategyPage.com urn:uuid:59e6e02d-c428-2ee2-0c92-465f51827817 Fri, 21 Jun 2024 20:05:49 -0400 PHILIPPINES: June 2024 Update http://www.strategypage.com/qnd/phillip/articles/202406220436.aspx StrategyPage.com urn:uuid:271d3f3f-139a-9530-978a-07d5bc5a68f5 Fri, 21 Jun 2024 20:04:36 -0400 Pentagon background-check systems at risk of hacking, GAO says https://www.defenseone.com/defense-systems/2024/06/pentagon-background-check-systems-risk-hacking-gao-says/397546/ Defense One - All Content urn:uuid:7e54b5db-b25d-ccce-e7f7-61fd58748587 Fri, 21 Jun 2024 14:59:24 -0400 The Defense Counterintelligence and Security Agency didn’t fully implement DOD’s cybersecurity process, a new report finds. Defense Systems Lauren C. Williams DSCA illustration Defense Counterintelligence and Security Agency US blacklists Kaspersky software over alleged Kremlin ties https://www.defenseone.com/threats/2024/06/us-blacklists-kaspersky-software-over-alleged-kremlin-ties/397537/ Defense One - All Content urn:uuid:3614440e-9fe6-e517-0457-248374e6dc21 Fri, 21 Jun 2024 13:21:29 -0400 The Commerce Department says its products could expose sensitive data; company denies it. Threats David DiMolfetta Kaspersky is displayed on a screen in Moscow, Russia on June 16, 2023. Photo illustration: Sefa Karacan/Anadolu Agency via Getty Images Two startups join forces to make self-flying tankers, dogfighting AI, and more https://www.defenseone.com/technology/2024/06/two-startups-join-forces-make-self-flying-tankers-dogfighting-ai-and-more/397534/ Defense One - All Content urn:uuid:3f7d8b70-f6d7-1afb-cde2-81daca7b4d39 Fri, 21 Jun 2024 13:11:50 -0400 Merlin Labs, which aims to test an AI-powered KC-135 within a year, is to buy F-16 AI driver EpiSci. Science & Tech Audrey Decker A Michigan Air National Guard KC-135T from the 171st Air Refueling Squadron flies from at Selfridge ANG Base in 2020. U.S. Air National Guard / Munnaf Joarder Army hopes digital models in contracts can help industry deliver faster and better https://www.defenseone.com/defense-systems/2024/06/army-hopes-digital-models-contracts-can-help-industry-deliver-faster-and-better/397531/ Defense One - All Content urn:uuid:222f1c00-8236-2349-e67b-ce5bbf15a902 Fri, 21 Jun 2024 13:01:01 -0400 The service is also planning to test generative AI. Defense Systems Lauren C. Williams The Bell V-280 Valor, seen here at a 2019 air show, is one of the born-digital programs that the Army wants to learn from. Danazar El Congreso de EE. UU. propone alternativas para el reclutamiento militar https://www.nytimes.com/es/2024/06/21/espanol/reclutamiento-estados-unidos-mujeres.html United States Defense and Military Forces urn:uuid:c35bab1e-2064-39d8-af42-996c60fb786a Fri, 21 Jun 2024 12:35:58 -0400 Los congresistas de ambos partidos buscan actualizar el servicio militar obligatorio. Incluyen propuestas para que las mujeres también se registren. Draft and Recruitment (Military) United States Defense and Military Forces United States Politics and Government House of Representatives Senate Law and Legislation Women and Girls Robert Jimison The D Brief: Russia’s new bomb; Rolling blackouts in Ukraine; Bid for Philly shipyard; China-Philippines fracas; And a bit more. https://www.defenseone.com/threats/2024/06/the-d-brief-june-21-2024/397528/ Defense One - All Content urn:uuid:bce0048e-8217-5681-a5a9-2510246221c4 Fri, 21 Jun 2024 11:41:50 -0400 Threats Ben Watson and Bradley Peniston Looking Ahead from Lviv: Sustainable Development in a Post-Conflict Ukraine https://www.justsecurity.org/96943/sustainable-development-in-post-conflict-ukraine/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=sustainable-development-in-post-conflict-ukraine Just Security urn:uuid:d100b148-dcad-478a-fd1a-f3d0e4258b73 Fri, 21 Jun 2024 09:15:21 -0400 <p>Consistent with principles of sustainable development, it is time to begin developing plans for the post-conflict reconstruction of Ukraine.</p> <p>The post <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/96943/sustainable-development-in-post-conflict-ukraine/">Looking Ahead from Lviv: Sustainable Development in a Post-Conflict Ukraine</a> appeared first on <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org">Just Security</a>.</p> <p><em>(Editor’s note: This article is part of </em>Just Security<em>’s </em><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/94368/symposium-view-from-lviv/"><em>Symposium</em></a><em>,</em> International Law in the Face of Russia’s Aggression in Ukraine: The View from Lviv.<em>)</em></p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">The goal of fostering sustainable development in Ukraine goes beyond the not inconsiderable challenges of reconstruction, recovery, and claims for losses incurred during the conflict. It concerns integrating economic development, human development, and environmental protection. This implies strong institutions, good governance, the rule of law, and continued efforts to combat corruption, as well as sensitivity to environmental and social considerations. And it implies international institutions working together on a coordinated basis and in a way that is responsive to Ukrainian needs and priorities.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">This article, drawing from materials and discussion in the <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/94368/symposium-view-from-lviv/">Lviv workshop</a> organized by the Ukrainian Association of International Law and the American Society of International Law (ASIL), will set out a number of key topics that achieving sustainable development in a post-conflict Ukraine needs to consider. Recognizing the scale of the needs and the importance of a coordinated effort, it also suggests a more immediate task: a comprehensive legal inventory of efforts that are already underway to identify gaps and promote communication and coordination.</p> <h2 style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Temporal Issues and the Challenges Created by the Current Conflict</strong></h2> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Some may say that it is premature to discuss the topic of law and development given that hostilities are ongoing, with no end in sight, and that all of Ukraine’s resources need to be targeted towards the conflict. Moreover, with the timing and ultimate outcome uncertain, multilateral institutions and other potential lenders and investors may be understandably reluctant to commit to projects in Ukraine – even in parts of the country that are farther from the front – given the uncertainties.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">These are legitimate concerns. But while it may be premature to commit funds for projects on the ground, it is not too early to be thinking about the development goals for a post-conflict Ukraine and what may be needed legally, financially, and institutionally to sustain them. Any planning for reconstruction should take into account the developmental goals of the country – goals set by Ukrainians, rather than being imposed from outside.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">The conflict itself may, sadly, create some opportunities. Members of the ASIL delegation, for example, heard about and visited a rehabilitation center that has been established in Lviv for combatants and non-combatants maimed by land mines and injured during fighting. State-of-the-art prosthetics have been developed at this center using technology such as 3D printing. While such a facility is currently focused on needs created by the conflict, post-conflict, it could become a source of business opportunity not only within Ukraine but outside as well.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Damage to or destruction of industrial facilities also presents questions, including whether to rebuild, what to rebuild, and where to rebuild. Facilities built during an era of a planned economy may not have been optimally situated even for the needs of the time, much less current ones. Such rebuilding also offers opportunities to incorporate green technologies and best practices that might otherwise be infeasible for cost or other reasons. Workshop participants pointed out that the cost of retrofitting old steel and other existing plants to make them “green” can be prohibitive. While a new plant may be costly, it can be designed to the state of the art, thus leapfrogging technically obsolete or highly polluting technology.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">These are just two examples. But the SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities) analysis carried out by workshop participants in Lviv is useful to reproduce here to inform further thinking.</p> <h2 id="tablepress-29-name" class="tablepress-table-name tablepress-table-name-id-29">The SWOT Analysis of the Lviv Workshop Participants</h2> <table id="tablepress-29" class="tablepress tablepress-id-29" aria-labelledby="tablepress-29-name"> <tbody class="row-hover"> <tr class="row-1 odd"> <td class="column-1"><strong>Strengths:</strong></td><td class="column-2"><strong>Weaknesses:</strong></td> </tr> <tr class="row-2 even"> <td class="column-1">• Ukraine’s level of human capital, including the educational level<br /> • Patriotism and commitment to the country<br /> • Resilience of the population<br /> • Historic breadth, size, and strength of the economy<br /> • Efforts to build laws and institutions<br /> • Willingness to change<br /> • Willingness to embrace new technology and other developments, such as artificial intelligence (AI)</td><td class="column-2">• The ongoing conflicts and timing considerations<br /> • The perception of corruption<br /> • Fragmentation due to the involvement of multiple actors and the risk of duplication<br /> • The presence of Russia as a neighbor</td> </tr> <tr class="row-3 odd"> <td class="column-1"><strong>Threats:</strong></td><td class="column-2"><strong>Opportunities:</strong></td> </tr> <tr class="row-4 even"> <td class="column-1">• Risks of brain drain<br /> • Loss of population<br /> • The challenges of transitions, e.g., for industrial workers<br /> • AI<br /> • The risk of “backsliding”<br /> • The high number of State-Owned Enterprises<br /> • The danger of State capture, in whole or in part, by elites, and the risk of corruption<br /> • The high incidence of land mines, especially in agricultural land<br /> • Damage to dams, nuclear power plants, water treatment plants, and other built infrastructure<br /> <br /> To these threats identified by participants, the extent of the needs must also be added</td><td class="column-2">• The ability to locate new investment where it would be most appropriate (i.e., no need to rebuild a destroyed steel mill that was previously located in the center of a city)<br /> • The ability to establish green industrial facilities without having to consider costly and impractical retrofitting<br /> • Opportunities for alternative/clean energy (and development of a plan to phase out coal)<br /> • Opportunities that EU membership, particularly in relation to rule of law, may bring<br /> • AI and information technology</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <!-- #tablepress-29 from cache --> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Beyond this analysis, workshop participants also discussed a number of additional topics of importance, summarized below, along with questions that were raised during the course of discussions or in the workshop materials. Indeed, at this stage there may be more questions than answers. But it is important to identify the key questions to help guide planning efforts.</p> <h2 style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Key Topics and Questions for a Sustainable Development Plan in Ukraine</strong></h2> <h4 style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Special Regimes and Temporary and Transitional Measures</em></h4> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Special regimes and temporary measures may be particularly well-suited to the needs of Ukraine’s post-conflict development. These could include measures to incentivize foreign investment and international trade, as well as programs to induce people who have left Ukraine to return or to stimulate repopulation of rural areas, perhaps through grants of abandoned land, or measures similar to the U.S. GI Bill (to help reintegrate ex-military personnel into society). Particular attention might need to be paid to the conditions and needs in any territory that was occupied by Russia. To the extent these might be in tension with EU, WTO, or other relevant rules or policies for States at a different stage of development, temporary exceptions could be established. Such transitional regimes are, of course, <a href="https://www.rff.org/publications/reports/the-european-union-policy-toolbox-to-support-just-transition">not uncommon</a>.</p> <h4 style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Infrastructure</em></h4> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Infrastructure development – including repairing damaged infrastructure such as housing and government buildings, roads, railroads, power plants (nuclear and non-nuclear) and grids; removing land mines; and restoring farmland and natural areas – is an obvious area of priority. It will require substantial private sector investment as well as public sector financing assistance. The level of necessary funding will increase the risks of corruption, especially if the goal is rapid procurement processes and disbursement of funds. Any process to set priorities should ensure appropriate input by Ukrainians and civil society. Realistic time frames need to be set, and while the needs are urgent, “quick fixes” likely need to be avoided. Some key questions in relation to this issue include:</p> <ul> <li>What procedures should be instituted or maintained to prevent corruption and ensure public trust in the process, including monitoring mechanisms to ensure funds are used for the intended purpose? Are the on-line transparency methods developed by Ukraine (but which may not be currently in use during the conflict) – which were demanded by civil society – workable and sufficient (including adequately reflecting sustainability factors)? Is additional protection of whistleblowers needed?</li> <li>When will streamlined permitting, including regarding environmental impact assessment, be necessary and how should it work?</li> <li>What incentives, assurances or guarantees will be required to ensure the requisite flow of funds?</li> <li>What internal security measures are needed?</li> </ul> <h4 style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Agriculture</em></h4> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Agricultural production, historically an important sector of Ukraine’s economy, has been badly affected by the conflict. What steps should be taken to rejuvenate Ukraine’s agricultural sector in the areas of removing landmines, improving transport to internal markets, improving transport to ports and other export hubs, modernizing ports, and providing advice and inputs appropriate to take account of changes in heat, precipitation, growing seasons, etc., predicted to occur as a result of climate change?</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">As <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/84051/the-law-of-treaties-in-wartime-the-case-of-the-black-sea-grain-initiative/">recent events</a> have demonstrated, agriculture is a highly sensitive sector from an export perspective. Ukraine has been a breadbasket for the world, but its capacity to produce may be perceived to <a href="https://www.aa.com.tr/en/europe/polish-farmers-end-protest-as-government-agrees-to-suspend-ukrainian-agricultural-product-imports/3170072#:~:text=Polish%20farmers%20blocked%20roads%20across,of%20the%20parliament%20in%20Warsaw">threaten</a> certain agricultural <a href="https://www.reuters.com/world/europe/giving-away-apples-polish-farmers-stage-more-food-protests-2024-03-20/">interests</a> in the EU. EU membership for Ukraine is highly desirable; the process of accession will contribute to institutional development and enhancement of the country’s legal infrastructure as Ukraine builds towards EU standards. But special agricultural access to the EU market could be politically fraught.</p> <h4 style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Environment, Health, and Education </em></h4> <p style="font-weight: 400;">A conflict like the war with Russia is <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/91357/no-longer-the-silent-victim-how-ukrainian-prosecutors-are-revitalizing-environmental-war-crime-law/">devastating</a> to the environment where it takes place. What steps should be taken to restore, regulate, and monitor Ukraine’s environment, including to protect human health? Areas to be considered include ensuring clean air, safe and sufficient drinking water, non-toxic environments (including indoor areas) in which to live, work, play, and study, healthy noise levels, biodiverse and robust forests, and adequate parks and protected areas.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">What steps should be taken to ensure Ukrainians have prompt and adequate access to good medical care? To meet the needs of those who have served in the conflict or who were traumatized by it?</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Regarding all of the above and at all levels, what steps should be taken to ensure robust and appropriate educational opportunities are available at all levels? To retrain workers to deal with new technologies and industries?</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Should a privatization program be initiated for State-owned enterprises, which play a significant role in the Ukrainian economy today? What about the recently nationalized companies?</p> <h4 style="font-weight: 400;"><em>The Justice System and Legal Norms</em></h4> <p style="font-weight: 400;">The justice system is a key underpinning for a functioning society and economy. What steps should be taken (normative, institutional, or otherwise) to ensure Ukraine’s justice system has the resources (financial, personnel, and other), institutions, and public trust necessary to uphold the rule of law? Does this system adequately incorporate human rights considerations? What other legal norms will be needed? While the EU accession process may address many of these issues, it may not cover all of them.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Do the courts have sufficient capacity and training to handle the disputes that may arise in this process? What forms of alternative dispute resolution should be encouraged? What is the status of arbitration? Mediation and conciliation? Are there sufficient small claims processes? (This is wholly separate from any international claims procedures and systems arising from the conflict with Russia, which are separate topics not addressed here.)</p> <h4 style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Civil Society </em></h4> <p style="font-weight: 400;">A vibrant civil society will be especially necessary during the period of rapid development efforts. While civil society has become robust in Ukraine in recent years, it is important to consider whether any steps are necessary to ensure adequate space for civil society to operate effectively, both offline and online in the context of the activities envisioned. Is funding for civil society adequate, and if not, what can be done to remedy the situation? Is there sufficient access to information about governmental actions, processes, and priorities? What should the role of civil society be in planning for the future of the country?<em> </em></p> <h4 style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Funding and Coordination</em></h4> <p style="font-weight: 400;">As many <a href="https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2024/02/15/updated-ukraine-recovery-and-reconstruction-needs-assessment-released">have</a> <a href="https://unsdg.un.org/latest/stories/ukraines-recovery-and-reconstruction-needs-mount-486-billion-needed-over-next-decade">observed</a>, the level of funding required for Ukraine’s reconstruction will be enormous, dwarfing efforts such as the Marshall Plan. How should requests to, and relations with, the various sources of funding necessary to fuel Ukraine’s repair and development be handled? Of particular importance is the question of how funds received from multilateral, bilateral, and private sources should be coordinated to avoid duplication and maximize impact? On the multilateral level, key players will include the European Investment Bank (related to EU possible membership?), the World Bank (including its private sector arm, the International Finance Corporation), the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the International Monetary Fund, the Global Environment Fund, and the World Trade Organization. What creative financing strategies could be deployed? Ukraine bonds that are marketed worldwide and in which individuals as well as institutions could invest? Others?</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">What steps can and should be taken to ensure that funds used in these efforts are used for the intended purpose? The scale of the effort that will be needed presents particular challenges in this regard, as experience has shown that effective monitoring and oversight of the use of funds when large amounts are involved and are being disbursed quickly becomes extremely difficult. Fraudsters are creative and opportunistic.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">What can we learn from previous efforts? <em>E.g.,</em> coordination of efforts in the context of the Marshall Plan? Rule-of-law efforts after the fall of the Soviet Union through bar groups such as the International Bar Association, the American Bar Association’s Central and Eastern European Law Initiative, and European nations’ bar associations? Others?</p> <h2 style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Conclusion</strong></h2> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Just as steps are being taken to ensure that an effective claims process can take place at the appropriate time, so should efforts be made to plan for the post-conflict reconstruction of the country consistent with principles of sustainable development. Some of the legal needs will be dependent on the particular development priorities adopted, while others are more predictable. Some efforts to inventory and assess the current legal position are already underway, but a comprehensive “legal inventory” that can provide a baseline for further work and the coordination and consolidation of those development-related legal efforts that are already underway in various quarters seems essential.</p> <h6><em>IMAGE: A man and a woman wrapped in the Ukrainian national flag walk the street in Lviv, Ukraine. (Photo by Alexey Furman/Getty Images)</em></h6> <p>The post <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/96943/sustainable-development-in-post-conflict-ukraine/">Looking Ahead from Lviv: Sustainable Development in a Post-Conflict Ukraine</a> appeared first on <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org">Just Security</a>.</p> International and Foreign International Justice Russia-Ukraine civil society development healthcare Infrastructure Lviv Symposium Russia-Ukraine War Sustainable Development Lucinda A. Low Can Families of Mass Shooting Victims Hold Social Media Companies Responsible for Violence? https://www.justsecurity.org/96932/social-media-companies-mass-shootings/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=social-media-companies-mass-shootings Just Security urn:uuid:4afb6b50-4d43-951b-5ddd-53b27d3cb922 Fri, 21 Jun 2024 08:50:09 -0400 <p>Lawsuits connecting social media companies to mass shootings could hold Silicon Valley titans legally responsible for societal harms. </p> <p>The post <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/96932/social-media-companies-mass-shootings/">Can Families of Mass Shooting Victims Hold Social Media Companies Responsible for Violence?</a> appeared first on <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org">Just Security</a>.</p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The families of mass shooting victims in Uvalde, Texas, and Buffalo, New York, have filed lawsuits attempting to hold Meta and Google liable for violence committed by young men allegedly introduced to military-grade weaponry and hateful ideology during their many hours online. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The success of these legal actions may turn in part on a federal law that Congress passed in the mid-1990s, </span><a href="https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/47/230"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">, which has become a crucial and controversial tool for powerful social media companies to deflect lawsuits alleging liability for harmful content posted on their platforms.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The two lawsuits are part of a broader effort to grapple with the </span><a href="https://www.gunviolencearchive.org/reports/mass-shooting?page=8"><span style="font-weight: 400;">proliferation</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> of mass shootings in the United States. Another such attempt failed just days ago when the U.S. Supreme Court </span><a href="https://www.npr.org/2024/06/14/g-s1-2929/supreme-court-bump-stocks"><span style="font-weight: 400;">struck down a ban</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> on bump stocks, devices that can modify semi-automatic guns to fire at faster rates. If they are successful, the suits against social media companies could have consequences beyond this context, providing a template for holding Silicon Valley titans legally responsible for a wider array of societal harms. </span></p> <h2><b>The Rise of Section 230  </b></h2> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">As internet commerce was just getting aloft in the mid-1990s, Congress passed Section 230 to protect message boards and other nascent online businesses from being sued over material posted by third parties. Interpreted </span><a href="https://crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/R/R46751"><span style="font-weight: 400;">broadly</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> by the courts, the law has conferred an important advantage on some of the technology industry’s most influential and lucrative corporations, while also promoting free-wheeling expression online.  </span></p> <p><a href="https://law.umn.edu/profiles/alan-rozenshtein"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Alan Rozenshtein</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">, an associate professor of law at the University of Minnesota who has </span><a href="https://www.yalejreg.com/bulletin/interpreting-the-ambiguities-of-section-230/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">written extensively</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> about Section 230</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">, said in an interview that: </span></p> <blockquote><p>In recent years, state and federal courts have begun to entertain arguments that limit Section 230 by framing their claims as falling under product liability or negligence – something that wasn&#8217;t happening 10 years ago. This trend means that the strategy employed in the mass shooting lawsuits should be viewed as plausible, if not necessarily guaranteed to produce plaintiffs&#8217; victories.</p></blockquote> <p><a href="https://www.law.georgetown.edu/faculty/heidi-li-feldman/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Heidi Li Feldman</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">, a professor at the Georgetown University Law Center who studies personal injury law, agreed that “this isn’t a wildly crazy position to take on 230.”  </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The relevant portion of Section 230 states that providers of an “interactive computer service” – today, that </span><a href="https://www.vox.com/recode/2020/5/28/21273241/section-230-explained-supreme-court-social-media"><span style="font-weight: 400;">includes</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> social media platforms – shall not be “treated as the publisher or speaker of any information provided by” users of those platforms. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Section 230 does not provide absolute liability protection. The statute itself makes </span><a href="https://crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/R/R46751"><span style="font-weight: 400;">exceptions</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> for civil claims related to violations of federal criminal law, intellectual property rules, and wiretapping laws, among others. In 2018, Congress added another </span><a href="https://trumpwhitehouse.archives.gov/briefings-statements/signing-allow-states-victims-fight-online-sex-trafficking-act-president-donald-j-trump-provides-invaluable-tools-needed-fight-scourge-sex-trafficking/#:~:text=RESOURCES%20TO%20END%20SEX%20TRAFFICKING,tools%20to%20fight%20sex%20trafficking."><span style="font-weight: 400;">exception</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> for allegations stemming from online sex trafficking. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Moreover, courts have allowed plaintiffs to sue interactive websites for their own conduct or speech. Section 230 </span><a href="https://cdn.ca9.uscourts.gov/datastore/opinions/2019/03/13/18-55367.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">did not protect</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> HomeAway.com, a short-term home-rental service, against liability for violating an ordinance in Santa Monica, Calif., barring unlicensed rentals. </span><a href="https://law.justia.com/cases/federal/appellate-courts/ca9/04-56916/0456916-2011-02-25.html"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Nor can online platforms seek refuge</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> in Section 230 for violating anti-discrimination laws by, for example, soliciting the gender, family status, or sexual orientation of users seeking roommates.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Critics of Section 230 argue that it still stifles legitimate lawsuits. The law “</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">is now poisoning the healthy online ecosystem it once fostered,” House Energy and Commerce Committee Chair Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-WA) and Ranking Member Frank Pallone, Jr. (D-NJ) wrote in a recent </span><a href="https://www.wsj.com/articles/sunset-of-section-230-would-force-big-techs-hand-208f75f1?mod=commentary_article_pos2"><span style="font-weight: 400;">op-ed</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> in </span><i><span style="font-weight: 400;">The Wall Street Journal</span></i><span style="font-weight: 400;">. “Big Tech companies are exploiting the law to shield them from any responsibility or accountability as their platforms inflict immense harm on Americans, especially children.” </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Bemoaning lawmakers’ failed attempts over the past half-dozen years to curtail Section 230, Rodgers and Pallone have drafted a </span><a href="https://energycommerce.house.gov/posts/energy-and-commerce-leaders-unveil-bipartisan-draft-legislation-to-sunset-section-230"><span style="font-weight: 400;">bill</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> that would repeal the statute altogether in late 2025 unless the industry collaborates on limiting its reach. Or, as they put it,</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> “</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">require Big Tech and others to work with Congress over 18 months to evaluate and enact a new legal framework that will allow for free speech and innovation while also encouraging these companies to be good stewards of their platforms.” </span><i><span style="font-weight: 400;"> </span></i><i><span style="font-weight: 400;"> </span></i></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The lawyers filing suit on behalf of families of mass shooting victims aren’t waiting for legislative changes. They argue that Section 230 permits their suits because they are   based on platform design and/or misconduct, rather than the mere display of harmful content.  </span></p> <h2><b>Uvalde Victims’ Families Sue Meta </b></h2> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Last month, the families of 19 fourth-graders and two teachers who were killed in their classrooms in Uvalde in May 2022 </span><a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2024/05/24/us/uvalde-gun-instagram-activision-lawsuit.html?smid=nytcore-ios-share&amp;referringSource=articleShare&amp;sgrp=c-cb"><span style="font-weight: 400;">sued</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> Instagram. The suit seeks to hold the platform and its corporate parent, Meta, responsible for exposing the 18-year-old gunman to the military-style weapon and tactics he used in the massacre. Filed in state court in California, where Meta is based, </span><a href="https://www.politico.com/f/?id=0000018f-acc4-d34e-afcf-bdd6a4660000"><span style="font-weight: 400;">the suit also targets</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> Activision Blizzard, the publisher of the violent military-themed video game </span><a href="https://www.callofduty.com/"><i><span style="font-weight: 400;">Call of Duty</span></i></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">, and Activision’s parent, Microsoft.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Invoking California negligence and product liability law, the Uvalde families’ suit alleges that Instagram is designed to “addict” teenagers with sensationalistic and violent content that keeps them on the app and makes them vulnerable to the targeted advertising that generates the lion’s share of company revenue. In the months leading up to the attack at Robb Elementary School, the shooter developed “an unhealthy, likely obsessive, relationship with Instagram,” according to the suit. He allegedly created and used at least 20 different Instagram accounts, sometimes opening the app more than 100 times in a single day. Often, he was searching for information about guns – specifically AR-15-style large-capacity military-style semiautomatic rifles of the sort that he eventually used in the massacre.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">These elements of the Uvalde families’ claims against Meta are </span><a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/nation/2024/05/24/uvalde-lawsuits-daniel-defense-meta-activision/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">similar to some of the suits</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> filed by dozens of state attorneys general and school districts that have accused the company of </span><a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/education/2023/03/19/school-lawsuits-social-media-mental-health/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">addicting and manipulating</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> young users of its platforms.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The Uvalde suit accuses Instagram of purposely undermining its own policy on gun advertising. Meta platforms </span><a href="https://transparency.meta.com/policies/ad-standards/dangerous-content/weapons"><span style="font-weight: 400;">officially ban ads</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> that “promote the sale or use of weapons, ammunition or explosives,” including firearms. But in practice Instagram’s policy is that “only paid firearm advertisements are prohibited,” according to the suit. This allows gun manufacturers and marketers to post “organic” promotional material from their own accounts and the accounts of pro-gun influencers, as long as the material avoids the words “buy” and “sell,” omits prices, and does not link directly to purchasing opportunities. By creating this loophole in its anti-gun ad policy, Instagram effectively provides the firearm industry with a “blueprint” for promoting their wares to impressionable users like the Uvalde shooter, the suit alleges.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Instagram’s effectiveness for marketing guns is </span><a href="https://www.vox.com/features/2019/6/19/18644129/instagram-gun-influencers-second-amendment-tactical-community"><span style="font-weight: 400;">openly discussed</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> in gun industry circles. The suit cites the marketing agency Fidelitas, which carries on its website an </span><a href="https://fidelitas.co/5-ways-firearm-retailers-can-advertise-online-without-facebook-ads/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">article</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> entitled, “5 Ways Firearm Brands Can Advertise Online Without Google Ads and Facebook Ads.” The article notes that “there are some major loopholes in…advertising regulations for Facebook and Instagram.” Fidelitas emphasizes that gun manufacturers’ own “organic posts” and gun “reviews” by influencers are allowed, as long as they do not link to pages where guns are sold.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">In the run-up to the Robb Elementary attack, the shooter became particularly interested in AR-15-style rifles manufactured by a Georgia  company called </span><a href="https://danieldefense.com/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Daniel Defense</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">, according to the suit. Daniel Defense frequently used its own account to post about its weapons on Instagram. Often, the company showed its rifles in the hands of soldiers. But on May 13, 2022, a Daniel Instagram post depicted an AR-15-style rifle leaning against the refrigerator in a kitchen, with the text, “Let’s normalize kitchen Daniels. What Daniel do you use to protect your family and home?” Three days later, the Uvalde shooter purchased the exact model shown in the kitchen scene – the DDM4 V7 – and eight days after that, he used it at Robb Elementary, according to the suit. (In a </span><a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/nation/2024/05/24/uvalde-lawsuits-daniel-defense-meta-activision/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">separate suit</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> filed in Texas state court, the Uvalde plaintiffs have accused Daniel Defense of illegally enticing the shooter to purchase the weapon less than an hour after he turned 18.)</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The plaintiffs’ complaint implicitly concedes that at this early stage of the California litigation, they don’t yet have evidence proving that specific Instagram posts brought the DDM4 V7 to the shooter’s attention. In fact, the suit alleges that he was also exposed to that model while “obsessively” playing </span><i><span style="font-weight: 400;">Modern Warfare</span></i><span style="font-weight: 400;">, an installment in the popular </span><i><span style="font-weight: 400;">Call of Duty</span></i><span style="font-weight: 400;"> video game franchise marketed by Activision. Daniel Defense boasted on Instagram that the DDM4 V7 was featured on the </span><i><span style="font-weight: 400;">Modern Warfare</span></i><span style="font-weight: 400;"> loading page, according to the suit. </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">Daniel, Instagram, and Activision each participated in “grooming” the teenager as a mass killer, the plaintiffs allege.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Meta and Daniel did not respond to requests for comment for this article. An Activision spokesperson </span><a href="https://www.cbsnews.com/news/uvalde-shooting-families-wrongful-death-lawsuit-meta-activision-daniel-defense/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">told</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> CBS News, “We express our deepest sympathies to the families,” but added that “millions of people around the world enjoy video games without turning to horrific acts.”</span></p> <h2><b>A lawsuit Against YouTube Stays on Track </b></h2> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">A </span><a href="https://iapps.courts.state.ny.us/nyscef/ViewDocument?docIndex=dINP/dpmp06kbUBE77sZTQ=="><span style="font-weight: 400;">ruling</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> in March from a state court judge in New York provided at least some support for the strategy of emphasizing platform design and conduct when suing a social media company. The New York judge refused to dismiss a lawsuit against YouTube and its corporate parent, Google, stemming from the May 14, 2022, mass shooting at a Buffalo supermarket, which occurred just 10 days before the Uvalde massacre. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The New York judge rejected, for now, the companies’ Section 230 defense and said relatives of the victims could move ahead with pre-trial discovery – the process of seeking documents and other information – that may establish that YouTube is a defectively designed &#8220;product&#8221; under New York tort law. The plaintiffs in that case allege that the shooter targeted African-American customers at Tops Friendly Markets after being indoctrinated on YouTube to believe a strain of racist ideology known as the “white replacement theory.” </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The false white replacement theory, which is also known as the great replacement theory and is </span><a href="https://theconversation.com/what-is-the-great-replacement-theory-a-scholar-of-race-relations-explains-224835"><span style="font-weight: 400;">prevalent</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> in some right-wing circles, posits a sweeping plot to have immigrants and people of color eclipse whites politically and socially. The New York ruling is not a binding precedent in California, and the case is still at a relatively early stage, but it may provide a preview of pretrial skirmishing likely to occur in the Uvalde litigation.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">In the end, courts may conclude that the suits in California and New York are, at root, about third-party content, triggering Section 230’s liability shield. But it’s worth noting that the lead plaintiffs’ lawyer representing the Uvalde families, </span><a href="https://www.koskoff.com/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Josh Koskoff</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">, is the same attorney who has successfully represented victims’ families in litigation following the Newtown, Conn., elementary school shooting in 2012. That case, which did not involve allegations about social media, targeted Remington Arms, the manufacturer of another AR-15-style rifle. In steering the Newtown case, Koskoff demonstrated a knack for using claims of improper marketing to avoid a broad federal liability shield law designed to protect an industry – in that case, the gun industry. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The Newtown suit initially was seen as a long shot because of the </span><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protection_of_Lawful_Commerce_in_Arms_Act#:~:text=The%20Protection%20of%20Lawful%20Commerce,been%20committed%20with%20their%20products."><span style="font-weight: 400;">Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">, which could be considered firearm manufacturers’ version of Section 230. Enacted in 2005 in response to lawsuits against gun makers, the Act protects the firearm industry from almost all civil liability for shootings. But Koskoff argued that the Newtown case should be allowed to proceed based on a Connecticut consumer protection law, which he claimed bars wrongful marketing by Remington Arms. In 2022, after </span><a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-nation/wp/2016/04/14/connecticut-judge-wont-dismiss-sandy-hook-lawsuit-against-gun-manufacturers/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">surviving attempts</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> to have the suit dismissed, he reached a landmark $73 million settlement with Remington, and </span><a href="https://www.latimes.com/world-nation/story/2022-02-15/sandy-hook-families-settle-with-gun-maker-remington"><span style="font-weight: 400;">created a template</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> for other litigation now pending against the gun industry.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Much legal maneuvering lies ahead. Whether Koskoff’s breakthrough in the Newtown case puts pressure on Daniel Defense to settle the Uvalde litigation is one question. Even more complicated is the question of whether he and his counterparts in the Buffalo case can circumvent Section 230 in their pursuit of Meta and Google. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The ripple effects of such a breakthrough could propel </span><a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/education/2023/03/19/school-lawsuits-social-media-mental-health/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">other efforts</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> to hold the social media industry accountable by means of litigation. Perhaps the most immediate effects could be seen in pending </span><a href="https://www.cpmlegal.com/media/news/15140_2023-03-13%20_1_%20Social%20Media%20Complaint.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">lawsuits</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> blaming the industry for platform designs that allegedly addict teenagers and then facilitate their exposure to content that exacerbates depressive and even suicidal tendencies.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Broad-based corporate reform litigation typically gains traction when supported by </span><a href="http://law.stanford.edu/wp-content/uploads/2022/07/Engstrom-Rabin-73-Stan.-L.-Rev.-285-1.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">changing popular attitudes</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">, as occurred in connection with lawsuits that targeted the </span><a href="https://www.naag.org/our-work/naag-center-for-tobacco-and-public-health/the-master-settlement-agreement/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">tobacco industry</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> in the 1980s and 1990s and the </span><a href="https://www.forbes.com/advisor/legal/product-liability/prescription-opioid-lawsuit-guide/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">opioid industry< Courts Domestic Extremism Litigation Other Terrorism Big Tech Buffalo Domestic Terrorism gun violence Instagram Meta Section 230 Social Media Uvalde Paul M. Barrett Early Edition: June 21, 2024 https://www.justsecurity.org/97008/early-edition-june-21-2024/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=early-edition-june-21-2024 Just Security urn:uuid:54257e2b-1d5a-ac3a-ba13-fe3a3c9bb871 Fri, 21 Jun 2024 08:06:48 -0400 <p>Signup to receive the Early Edition in your inbox here. A curated weekday guide to major news and developments over the past 24 hours. Here’s today’s news: RUSSIA-UKRAINE DEVELOPMENTS The United States will boost Ukraine’s air defense munitions by pausing planned exports to its allies and partners, National Security Council spokesperson John Kirby said yesterday. “We [&#8230;]</p> <p>The post <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/97008/early-edition-june-21-2024/">Early Edition: June 21, 2024</a> appeared first on <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org">Just Security</a>.</p> <p>Signup to receive the Early Edition in your inbox <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/early-edition-signup/">here</a>.</p> <p>A curated weekday guide to major news and developments over the past 24 hours. Here’s today’s news:</p> <p><b><i>RUSSIA-UKRAINE DEVELOPMENTS</i></b></p> <p><b>The United States will boost Ukraine’s air defense munitions by pausing planned exports to its allies and partners,</b><span style="font-weight: 400;"> National Security Council spokesperson John Kirby said yesterday. “We have, of course, informed all the affected countries that we are taking this extraordinary step,” Kirby said, adding, “The response we got was broadly supportive … because they know how serious the need is in Ukraine.” Alex Horton and John Hudson report for the </span><a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/2024/06/20/ukraine-patriot-air-defense/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Washington Post</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">; Nancy A. Youssef and Gordon Lubold report for the </span><a href="https://www.wsj.com/politics/national-security/u-s-to-redirect-air-defense-missile-deliveries-to-ukraine-e2753a20?mod=world_lead_pos2"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Wall Street Journal</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">. </span></p> <p><b>The United States signaled that it has expanded its policy to allow Ukraine to counterstrike into Russia. </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">National Security Adviser Jake Sullivan told PBS News on Monday that the agreement with Ukraine to fire into Russia extends wherever Russian forces are engaging in cross-border attacks into Ukraine, not just in the Kharkiv region as was previously determined</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">. Haley Britzky and Natasha Bertrand report for </span><a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2024/06/20/politics/us-policy-ukraine-counterstrike-russia/index.html"><span style="font-weight: 400;">CNN</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b>Putin yesterday warned South Korea against sending weapons to Ukraine.</b><span style="font-weight: 400;"> Speaking at a press conference in Vietnam, Putin said, “If South Korea supplies weapons to Ukraine, it will not like the answer … it would be a big mistake.” His remarks come after Seoul announced it would consider arming Ukraine in response to the newly-signed Moscow-Pyongyang defense pact. Seb Starcevic reports for </span><a href="https://www.politico.eu/article/sending-weapons-to-ukraine-would-be-a-big-mistake-putin-warns-south-korea/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">POLITICO</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b>The Romanian government yesterday pledged to send a full Patriot air defense system to Ukraine to strengthen its defenses, </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">on the condition that allies — and especially the United States — agree to provide an alternative “temporary solution.”</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">Joshua Posaner reports for </span><a href="https://www.politico.eu/article/romania-agrees-to-donate-patriot-air-defense-system-to-ukraine/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">POLITICO</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b><i>NORTH KOREA-SOUTH KOREA TENSIONS</i></b></p> <p><b>Russia and North Korea’s signing of a bilateral defense pact this week, the most </b><b>significant agreement signed by the two allies in decades,</b><b> has rattled the region. </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">Today, South Korea summoned Russia’s ambassador in a rare diplomatic move, urging Moscow to “immediately halt military cooperation” with Pyongyang and abide by U.N. Security Council resolutions. Earlier today, Kim Jong Un’s sister issued a vague threat of retaliation after South Korean activists flew balloons carrying anti-Pyongyang propaganda. </span><a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2024/06/20/asia/putin-ukraine-north-korea-south-korea-intl-hnk/index.html"><span style="font-weight: 400;">CNN</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> reports; Kim Tong-Hyung reports for </span><a href="https://apnews.com/article/korean-border-defector-leaflets-balloons-c7b5c2d2b7a919361de086c5e32291d2"><span style="font-weight: 400;">AP News</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b>North Korea is constructing sections of what appears to be a wall in several places near its border with South Korea, </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">new satellite images analyzed by BBC Verify show. Images also show that land inside the Demilitarised Zone has been cleared, which experts say may be a violation of the long-standing truce with South Korea. Jake Horton, Yi Ma, and Daniele Palumbo report for </span><a href="https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/articles/c2qq7x594vqo"><span style="font-weight: 400;">BBC News</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b>South Korea&#8217;s military fired warning shots after several North Korean soldiers crossed the border yesterday, Seoul&#8217;s Joint Chiefs of Staff said, </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">adding that Pyongyang&#8217;s soldiers retreated after the warning shots were fired. </span><a href="https://www.reuters.com/world/asia-pacific/south-korea-fired-warning-shots-after-north-korean-soldiers-crossed-border-2024-06-21/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Reuters</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> reports. </span></p> <p><b><i>TRUMP-LEGAL MATTERS</i></b><span style="font-weight: 400;"><br /> </span><b>Two federal judges in South Florida privately urged U.S. District Judge Aileen Cannon to decline former President Trump’s classified documents case when it was assigned to her last year, </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">according to two sources. Cannon, who was appointed by Trump, ignored the advice and instead chose to keep the case, the sources said. The extraordinary effort by her colleagues adds a new dimension to criticism of her handling of the case. Charlie Savage and Alan Feuer report for the </span><a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2024/06/20/us/politics/aileen-cannon-trump-classified-documents.html"><span style="font-weight: 400;">New York Times</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b>Trump’s legal team yesterday requested the recusal of New York Judge Arthur Engoron in his civil fraud case,</b><span style="font-weight: 400;"> accusing Engoron of “engaging in prohibited communications&#8221; with a real estate attorney ahead of final judgment in the case. A state judicial conduct investigation is underway. Engoron denies that the conversation influenced him in deciding Trump’s case. April Rubin reports for </span><a href="https://www.axios.com/2024/06/20/trump-civil-fraud-case-judge-arthur-engoron"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Axios</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">. </span></p> <p><b>Trump’s lawyers today hit back at special counsel Jack Smith in the classified documents case by opposing his gag order request.</b><span style="font-weight: 400;"> In a filing, defense attorneys argued that Smith “seeks to restrict President Trump’s campaign speech” ahead of the first debate with President Biden this month. A gag order hearing is scheduled for June 24. Megan Lebowitz and Daniel Barnes report for </span><a href="https://www.nbcnews.com/politics/donald-trump/trumps-lawyers-urge-judge-reject-special-counsels-request-gag-order-cl-rcna157305"><span style="font-weight: 400;">NBC News</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b><i>DOMESTIC DEVELOPMENTS</i></b></p> <p><b>A federal appeals court yesterday denied 2-1 a last-minute bid by Steve Bannon, Trump’s longtime adviser, to stave off a four-month jail sentence for defying a subpoena from the Jan. 6 select committee three years ago.</b><span style="font-weight: 400;"> The divided three-judge panel ruled Bannon’s argument was unlikely to gain traction at the Supreme Court. Kyle Cheney and Josh Gerstein report for </span><a href="https://www.politico.com/news/2024/06/20/appeals-court-steve-bannon-jail-sentence-00164377"><span style="font-weight: 400;">POLITICO</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b>The White House yesterday announced it will ban Kaspersky Lab from distributing its anti-virus software and cybersecurity products in the United States, </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">citing “long raised national security concerns” related to the Russian company. Kelsey Ables reports for the </span><a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2024/06/21/kaspersky-banned-us-antivirus-russia/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Washington Post</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b><i>ISRAEL-HEZBOLLAH TENSIONS</i></b></p> <p><b>U.S. officials are concerned that Lebanon’s Hezbollah could overwhelm Israel&#8217;s air defenses, including the Iron Dome, in the event of an all out war. </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">Israel has also communicated these concerns to Washington, the officials said, adding that Israel has said it is planning to shift resources from southern Gaza to northern Israel in preparation for a possible offensive against the group. Natasha Bertrand, Alex Marquardt, Kylie Atwood and Jennifer Hansler report for </span><a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2024/06/20/politics/us-concerns-israel-iron-dome-hezbollah/index.html"><span style="font-weight: 400;">CNN</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b>Israel&#8217;s energy minister yesterday threatened a “power outage for months” in Lebanon if the Israeli electricity grid was disabled for even a few hours by Hezbollah. </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">The chief executive of the government company responsible for managing the electric grid had earlier said that Hezbollah “could easily bring down the electricity grid in Israel.” The </span><a href="https://www.nytimes.com/live/2024/06/21/world/israel-war-gaza-hamas/blinken-meets-with-israeli-officials-and-other-news?smid=url-share"><span style="font-weight: 400;">New York Times</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> reports.</span></p> <p><b>Lebanese officials yesterday worked to maintain friendly diplomatic relations with Cyprus, a day after Hezbollah threatened to attack the island if it allowed Israel to use its territories to attack Lebanon. </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">Bassem Mroue and Menelaos Hadjicostis report for </span><a href="https://apnews.com/article/lebanon-cyprus-israel-hezbollah-threat-nasrallah-af11dcf77adde513d1d3a6c424548c6a"><span style="font-weight: 400;">AP News</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b><i>ISRAEL-HAMAS WAR</i></b></p> <p><b>Israeli forces stepped up bombardment across the Gaza Strip and engaged in close-quarter combat with Hamas fighters,</b><span style="font-weight: 400;"> local residents and the Israeli military said. Residents reported that the Israel military appeared to be attempting to complete its capture of Rafah, while the IDF said today its forces were conducting “precise, intelligence-based” actions in the region. Nidal Al-Mughrabi reports for </span><a href="https://www.reuters.com/world/middle-east/israeli-forces-step-up-bombardment-across-gaza-amid-fierce-fighting-2024-06-21/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Reuters</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b>More than 37,431 Palestinians have been killed and 85,653 injured in Israel’s military offensive on Gaza since Oct. 7, </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">the Hamas-run health ministry said in a statement yesterday. </span><a href="https://www.theguardian.com/world/live/2024/jun/20/israel-gaza-war-live-netanyahu-idf-army-hamas-hezbollah-lebanon"><span style="font-weight: 400;">The Guardian</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> reports. </span></p> <p><b><i>ISRAEL-HAMAS WAR — U.S. RESPONSE </i></b></p> <p><b>The White House and Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu yesterday sparred over his complaints about U.S. support. </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">John Kirby said there was “no other country that’s done more, or will continue to do more, than the United States to help Israel defend itself,” adding that Netanyahu’s comments were “deeply disappointing and certainly vexing to us.” Daniel Victor and Erica L. Green report for the </span><a href="https://www.nytimes.com/live/2024/06/20/world/israel-gaza-war-hamas/netanyahus-comments-are-deeply-disappointing-the-white-house-says?smid=url-share"><span style="font-weight: 400;">New York Times</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b>A group of 69 Democrats sent a letter yesterday to Secretary of State Antony Blinken asking that he considers opening pathways for Palestinian refugees fleeing Gaza</b><span style="font-weight: 400;">. Miranda Nazzaro reports for </span><a href="https://thehill.com/homenews/administration/4731121-democrats-urge-pathways-palestinian-refugees/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">The Hill</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b><i>GLOBAL DEVELOPMENTS</i></b></p> <p><b>Outgoing Dutch prime minister Mark Rutte will succeed Jens Stoltenberg as the next NATO Secretary-General. </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">Following endorsements from Hungary and Slovakia on Tuesday,</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">Romania confirmed its support for Rutte yesterday, with Romanian President Klaus Iohannis withdrawing his candidacy for the job. Stuart Lau reports for </span><a href="https://www.politico.eu/article/mark-rutte-will-be-natos-next-secretary-general/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">POLITICO</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b>A former Qaeda battlefield commander who admitted that his insurgents killed 17 U.S. and allied forces in Afghanistan in the early 2000s will spend eight more years in prison under a plea agreement disclosed yesterday. </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">Abd al-Hadi al-Iraqi, 63, has been in U.S. custody since 2006. A U.S. military jury this week decided on a 30-year prison term, but under a plea deal announced just moments after the jury’s decision, his sentence will end in 2032. Carol Rosenberg reports for the </span><a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2024/06/20/us/politics/qaeda-commander-sentenced-guantanamo-bay.html"><span style="font-weight: 400;">New York Times</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b>The United States and China resumed semi-official nuclear arms talks in March for the first time in five years, </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">with Beijing&#8217;s representatives telling U.S. counterparts that they would not use atomic threats over Taiwan, according to two U.S. attendees. Greg Torode, Gerry Doyle, and Laurie Chen report for </span><a href="https://www.reuters.com/world/us-china-hold-first-informal-nuclear-talks-5-years-eyeing-taiwan-2024-06-21/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Reuters</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b>China today threatened to impose the death penalty for “diehard” Taiwan independence separatists.</b><span style="font-weight: 400;"> The comments add to regional tensions, although Chinese courts have no jurisdiction on the democratically governed island. </span><a href="https://www.reuters.com/world/china/china-issues-guidelines-criminal-punishment-diehard-taiwan-separatists-2024-06-21/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Reuters</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> reports.</span></p> <p><b>Russian authorities have fired a deputy defense minister jailed on bribery charges,</b><span style="font-weight: 400;"> Russian media reported yesterday. A court also ordered that his pretrial detention be extended for three more months. </span><a href="https://apnews.com/article/russia-military-arrest-bribery-ukraine-war-a15edab708c18bfee9ebbca54077a731"><span style="font-weight: 400;">AP News</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> reports.</span></p> <p><b>The Biden administration will give nearly $110 million in security and police assistance to Haiti, a U.S. State Department official told </b><a href="https://www.reuters.com/world/us/biden-administration-bypasses-republican-hold-funding-haiti-lawmaker-says-2024-06-20/"><b>Reuters</b></a><b>, </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">in a move that bypasses a months-long delay on the funds by Republican lawmakers.</span></p> <p><b>Turks and Caicos is revising part of its firearms law after the arrests of five Americans for carrying ammunition into the British Overseas Territory,</b><span style="font-weight: 400;"> House of Assembly member Edwin Astwood said today. Michael Rios and Michelle Watson report for </span><a href="https://edition.cnn.com/world/americas/turks-and-caicos-ammunition-arrests/index.html"><span style="font-weight: 400;">CNN</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p>The post <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/97008/early-edition-june-21-2024/">Early Edition: June 21, 2024</a> appeared first on <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org">Just Security</a>.</p> Daily News Roundup Beatrice Yahia Clearinghouse: 2016 Election Interference Case – Manhattan District Attorney https://www.justsecurity.org/89089/clearinghouse-2016-election-interference-case-manhattan-district-attorney/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=clearinghouse-2016-election-interference-case-manhattan-district-attorney Just Security urn:uuid:71e3ca57-e3a6-1116-5b52-7f7ecb56a76b Fri, 21 Jun 2024 05:25:05 -0400 <p>Repository containing a collection of information about Manhattan District Attorney Alvin Bragg's case against Donald Trump.</p> <p>The post <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/89089/clearinghouse-2016-election-interference-case-manhattan-district-attorney/">Clearinghouse: 2016 Election Interference Case &#8211; Manhattan District Attorney</a> appeared first on <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org">Just Security</a>.</p> <p>This repository contains a collection of information for researchers, journalists, educators, scholars, and the public at large. This particular repository is part of a much larger collection – the <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/88175/trump-trials-clearinghouse" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Trump Trials Clearinghouse</a> – which contains similar documents and information related to other criminal and civil trials involving former President Donald Trump.</p> <p>The repository and other parts of the Trump Trials Clearinghouse will be continually updated. If you think the repository is missing something, please send recommendations for additional content by email to <a href="mailto:lte@justsecurity.org">lte@justsecurity.org.</a></p> <div id="accordions-88363" class="accordions-88363 accordions" data-accordions={&quot;lazyLoad&quot;:true,&quot;id&quot;:&quot;88363&quot;,&quot;event&quot;:&quot;click&quot;,&quot;collapsible&quot;:&quot;true&quot;,&quot;heightStyle&quot;:&quot;content&quot;,&quot;animateStyle&quot;:&quot;swing&quot;,&quot;animateDelay&quot;:1000,&quot;navigation&quot;:true,&quot;active&quot;:999,&quot;expandedOther&quot;:&quot;yes&quot;,&quot;URLHash&quot;:&quot;no&quot;,&quot;headerToggle&quot;:&quot;no&quot;,&quot;scrollTop&quot;:&quot;no&quot;,&quot;scrollTopOffset&quot;:100,&quot;stats&quot;:&quot;no&quot;}> <div id="accordions-lazy-88363" class="accordions-lazy" accordionsId="88363"> </div> <div id="expand-collapse-88363" class="expand-collapse" accordion-id="88363"> <span class="expand"><i class="fas fa-expand"></i> Expand all</span><span class="collapse"><i class="fas fa-compress"></i> Collapse all</span> </div> <style type="text/css"> .accordions-88363 .expand-collapse { background-color: #2c7f96 !important; } </style> <div id="search-input-88363" class="search-input-wrap"> <input class="search-input" placeholder="" value=""> </div> <script style="display: none;"> jQuery(document).ready(function($) { jQuery(document).on('keyup', '#search-input-88363 input.search-input', function() { keyword = jQuery(this).val().toLowerCase(); content_head = []; content_body = []; $('#accordions-88363 .items .accordions-head-title').each(function(index) { content = $(this).text().toLowerCase(); content_head[index] = content; $(this).parent().removeClass("accordion-header-active"); $(this).parent().removeClass("ui-state-active"); }); $('#accordions-88363 .items .accordion-content').each(function(index) { $(this).hide(); content = $(this).text().toLowerCase(); content_body[index] = content + ' ' + content_head[index]; n = content_body[index].indexOf(keyword); if (n < 0) { $(this).prev().hide(); } else { $(this).prev().show(); } }); }) }) </script> <div class="items" style="display:none" > <div post_id="88363" itemcount="0" header_id="header-16963547430" id="header-16963547430" style="" class="accordions-head head16963547430 border-semi-round" toggle-text="" main-text="Relevant State Court Proceedings"> <span id="accordion-icons-16963547430" class="accordion-icons"> <span class="accordion-icon-active accordion-plus"><i class="fas fa-chevron-up"></i></span> <span class="accordion-icon-inactive accordion-minus"><i class="fas fa-chevron-right"></i></span> </span> <span id="header-text-16963547430" class="accordions-head-title">Relevant State Court Proceedings</span> </div> <div class="accordion-content content16963547430 "> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>State of New York v. Trump, <a href="https://iapps.courts.state.ny.us/webcrim_attorney/Detail?which=case&docketNumber=GI2EiBlp2xKw2X3yzpC/YA==&countyId=ftUCLXxA/VgUxT4CDSVwBw==&docketId=njFxMUl5XftJPCCQbDSj5Q==&docketDseq=o6PDyKIx4BvSfbvyCgDnHw==&defendantName=Trump,+Donald+J&court=New+York+Supreme+Court+-+Criminal+Term&courtType=S&recordType=C&recordNum=RKp1rFtdXC7ieuIS9t1_PLUS_0A==">Case No.: IND-71543-23</a></strong></span></p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><b>Charging Documents and Arraignment</b></span></p> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2023/09/Just-Security-Hush-Money-New-York-Trump-Clearinghouse-%E2%80%94-State-of-New-York-response-to-Trump-request-for-a-bill-of-particulars-May-16-2023.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">State of New York response to Trump request for a bill of particulars</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (May 16, 2023)</span> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="2"><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2023/09/Just-Security-Hush-Money-New-York-Trump-Clearinghouse-%E2%80%94-Trump-request-for-bill-of-particulars-April-27-2023.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Trump request for bill of particulars</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (April 27, 2023)</span></li> </ul> </li> </ul> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/03/Just-Security-NY-2016-Election-Interference-Case-Clearinghouse-%E2%80%94Trump-case-file-April-4-2023.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Trump case file</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (April 4, 2023)</span></li> </ul> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2023/09/Just-Security-Hush-Money-New-York-Trump-Clearinghouse-%E2%80%94-Trump-arraignment-hearing-transcript-April-4-2023.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Transcript of arraignment</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (April 4, 2023)</span></li> </ul> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2023/09/Just-Security-Hush-Money-New-York-Trump-Clearinghouse-%E2%80%94-Trump-Indictment-indicted-March-30-2023-and-released-to-public-April-4-2023.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Trump Indictment</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (indicted on March 30, 2023 released on April 4, 2023) and </span><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/02/Just-Security-NY-2016-Election-Interference-Trump-Clearinghouse-%E2%80%94-%E2%80%94-Trump-statement-of-facts-supporting-indictment-April-4-2023.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">statement of facts</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (April 4, 2023)</span></li> </ul> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/03/Just-Security-NY-2016-Election-Interference-Case-Clearinghouse-%E2%80%94Order-unsealing-indictment-April-4-2023-.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Order unsealing indictment</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (April 4, 2023) </span></li> </ul> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/03/JustSecurityNY2016ElectionInterferenceCaseClearinghouse%E2%80%94Transcript-of-hearing-on-application-of-news-organizations-to-unseal-indictment-April-4-2023.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Transcript of hearing on application of news organizations to unseal indictment</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (April 4, 2023)</span> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="2"><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/03/Just-Security-NY-2016-Election-Interference-Case-Clearinghouse-%E2%80%94-Application-of-news-organizations-to-unseal-indictment-March-31-2023.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Application of news organizations to unseal indictment</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (March 31, 2023)</span></li> </ul> </li> </ul> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/03/JustSecurityNY2016ElectionInterferenceCaseClearinghouse%E2%80%94Order-on-application-of-news-organizations-to-permit-videography-photography-and-radio-coverage-of-the-arraignment-April-3-2023.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Order on application of news organizations to permit videography, photography, and radio coverage of the arraignment</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (April 3, 2023)</span> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="2"><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/03/JustSecurityNY2016ElectionInterferenceCaseClearinghouse%E2%80%94Supplemental-submission-supporting-application-news-organizations-permit-videography-photography-radio-coverage-of-arraignment-April3-2023.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Supplemental submission in further support of application of news organizations to permit videography, photography, and radio coverage of the arraignment</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (April 3, 2023)</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="2"><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/03/JustSecurityNY2016ElectionInterferenceCaseClearinghouse%E2%80%94DANY-response-to-application-of-news-organizations-to-permit-videography-photography-radio-coverage-of-arraignment-April-3-2023.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">State of New York response to application of news organizations to permit videography, photography, and radio coverage of the arraignment</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (April 3, 2023)</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="2"><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/03/JustSecurityNY2016ElectionInterferenceCaseClearinghouse%E2%80%94Trump-opposition-application-news-organizations-to-permit-videography-photography-radio-coverage-of-arraignment-April-3-2023.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Trump opposition to application of news organizations to permit videography, photography, and radio coverage of the arraignment</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (April 3, 2023)</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="2"><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/03/JustSecurityNY2016ElectionInterferenceCaseClearinghouse%E2%80%94Application-of-news-organizations-to-permit-videography-photography-and-radio-coverage-of-the-arraignment-March-31-2023.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Application of news organizations to permit videography, photography, and radio coverage of the arraignment</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (March 31, 2023)</span></li> </ul> </li> </ul> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/03/Just-Security-NY-2016-Election-Interference-Case-Clearinghouse-%E2%80%94-Order-confirming-the-existence-of-grand-jury-true-bill-and-indictment-March-30-2023-e-filed-March-31.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Order confirming the existence of grand jury true bill and indictment</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (March 30, 2023) (entered March 31)</span></li> </ul> <p><strong><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Verdict </span></strong></p> <ul> <li><b><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/06/JustSecurityNY2016ElectionInterferenceCaseClearinghouse-Verdict-sheet-May-30-2024.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Verdict Form</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (May 30, 2024)</span></b></li> </ul> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><b>Trial Material</b></span></p> <p><em><strong>Jury Instructions and Charges</strong></em></p> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/05/JustSecurityNY2016ElectionInterferenceCaseClearinghouse-Final-Jury-Instructions-May-29-2024.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Final jury instructions and charges</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (May 29, 2024)</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/05/JustSecurityNY2016ElectionInterferenceCaseClearinghouse-Proposed-jury-instruction-for-falsifying-business-records-in-the-first-degree-May-21-2024-entered-May-22.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Joint proposed jury instruction: falsifying business records in the first-degree</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (May 21, 2024) [entered May 22]</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/05/JustSecurityNY2016ElectionInterferenceCaseClearinghouse-Proposed-jury-instruction-for-NY-Election-Law-17-152-May-21-2024-entered-May-22.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Joint proposed jury instruction: NY Election Law § 17-152</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (May 21, 2024) [entered May 22]</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/05/JustSecurityNY2016ElectionInterferenceCaseClearinghouse-Proposed-jury-instruction-for-FECA-violation-May-21-2024-entered-May-22.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Joint proposed jury instruction: Federal Election Campaign Act</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (May 21, 2024) [entered May 22]</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/05/JustSecurityNY2016ElectionInterferenceCaseClearinghouse-Proposed-jury-instruction-for-credibility-of-witnesses-May-21-2024-entered-May-22.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Joint proposed jury instruction: credibility of witnesses</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (May 21, 2024) [entered May 22]</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/05/JustSecurityNY2016ElectionInterferenceCaseClearinghouse-Proposed-jury-instruction-for-accomplice-as-a-matter-of-law-May-21-2024-entered-May-22.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Joint proposed jury instruction: accomplice as a matter of law</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (May 21, 2024) [entered May 22]</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/05/JustSecurityNY2016ElectionInterferenceCaseClearinghouse-Proposed-jury-instruction-on-accessorial-liability-May-21-2024-entered-May-22.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Joint proposed jury instruction: accessorial liability</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (May 21, 2024) [entered May 22]</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/06/JustSecurityNY2016ElectionInterferenceCaseClearinghouse-State-of-New-York-response-to-Trump-request-to-chargeMay-17-2024enteredMay22.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">State of New York response to Trump requests to charge</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (May 17, 2024) [entered May 22]</span> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="2"><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/06/JustSecurityNY2016ElectionInterferenceCaseClearinghouse-Trump-requests-to-charge-May-14-2024-entered-May-22.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Trump requests to charge</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (May 14, 2024) [entered May 22] </span></li> </ul> </li> </ul> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/06/JustSecurityNY2016ElectionInterferenceCaseClearinghouse-State-of-New-York-proposed-jury-instruction-as-to-remaining-counts-May-15-2024-entered-May-22.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">State of New York proposed jury instruction as to remaining counts</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (May 15, 2024) [entered May 22]</span> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><a style="font-size: 16px;" href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/06/JustSecurityNY2016ElectionInterferenceCaseClearinghouse-State-of-New-York-proposed-jury-instructions-May-13-2024-entered-May-22.pdf">State of New York proposed jury instructions</a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (May, 13, 2024) [entered May 22]</span></li> </ul> </li> </ul> <p><strong><i>Transcripts of Proceedings </i></strong></p> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/06/JustSecurityNY2016ElectionInterferenceCaseClearinghouse-Day-23-Transcript-Second-day-of-jury-deliberations-and-jury-verdict-May-30-2024.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Day 23 Transcript: Second day of jury deliberations, and jury verdict</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (May 30, 2024)</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/06/JustSecurityNY2016ElectionInterferenceCaseClearinghouse-Day-22-Transcript-First-day-of-jury-deliberations-May-29-2024.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Day 22 Transcript: First day of jury deliberations</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (May 29, 2024)</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/06/Day-21-Transcript-Summations-May-28-2024.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Day 21 Transcript: Summations</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (May 28, 2024)</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/06/JustSecurityNY2016ElectionInterferenceCaseClearinghouse-Day-20-Transcript-Robert-Costello-testimony-defense-rests-case-and-charge-conference-May-21-2024.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Day 20 Transcript: Robert Costello cross-examination, redirect, and recross–examination testimony; defense rests case; and charge conference</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (May 21, 2024) </span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/06/JustSecurityNY2016ElectionInterferenceCaseClearinghouse-Day-19-Transcript-Michael-Cohen-testimony-defense-witnesses-Danny-Sitko-Robert-Costello-testimony-May-20-2024.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Day 19 Transcript: Michael Cohen cross-examination, redirect, and recross-examination testimony; defense first witness, Blanche Law’s Danny Sitko direct and cross-examination; and defense final witness, Robert Costello direct and cross-examination testimony</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (May 20, 2024)</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/05/JustSecurityNY2016ElectionInterferenceCaseClearinghouse-Day-18-Transcript-Michael-Cohen-cross-examination-testimony-May-16-2024.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Day 18 Transcript: Michael Cohen cross-examination testimony</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (May 16, 2024)</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/05/JustSecurityNY2016ElectionInterferenceCaseClearinghouse-Day-17-Transcript-Michael-Cohen-direct-and-cross-examination-testimony-May-14-2024.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Day 17 Transcript: Michael Cohen direct and cross-examination testimony</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (May 14, 2024)</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/05/JustSecurityNY2016ElectionInterferenceCaseClearinghouse-Day-16-Transcript-Michael-Cohen-direct-testimony-May-13-2024.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Day 16 Transcript: Michael Cohen direct testimony</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (May 13, 2024)</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/05/JustSecurityNY2016ElectionInterferenceCaseClearinghouse-Day15Transcript-Madeleine-Westerhout-Daniel-Dixon-Jennie-Tomalin-DANYs-Georgia-Longstreet-Jaden-Jarmel-Schneider-May-10-2024.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Day 15 Transcript: Trump White House personal assistant</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">Madeleine Westerhout cross-examination, redirect, and recross-examination testament; AT&T’s Daniel Dixon direct and cross-examination testimony; Verizon’s Jennie Tomalin direct and cross-examination testimony; DANY’s Georgia Longstreet further direct and cross-examination testimony; and DANY’s Jaden Jarmel-Schneider direct, cross-examination, redirect, and recross-examination testimony</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (May 10, 2024)</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2024/05/JustSecurityNY2016ElectionInterferenceCaseClearinghouse-Day14Transcript-Stormy-Daniels-cross-redirect-recross-Manochio-direct-cross-Tracey-Menzies-Madeleine-Westerhout-direct-crossMay92024.pdf"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Day 14 Transcript: Stormy Daniels cross-examination, redirect, and recross-examination testimony; Trump Org.’s Rebecca Manochio direct and cross-examination testimony; Harper Collins’ Tracey Menzies direct and cross-examinat Courts Law Enforcement Rule of Law 2016 Presidential Elections Alvin Bragg election interference FEC Law enforcement Manhattan Trump Criminal Trial Michael Cohen Norman L. Eisen A Disaster of the U.S. Military’s Own Making https://www.nytimes.com/2024/06/19/magazine/suicide-military-austin-valley.html NYT > United States Defense and Military Forces urn:uuid:211f9c24-cc3f-7df5-dcf8-fc5492e12ad5 Thu, 20 Jun 2024 22:34:43 -0400 Austin Valley’s death exposed the Army’s most urgent challenge: a suicide crisis among soldiers in peacetime. United States Army Suicides and Suicide Attempts Mental Health and Disorders United States Defense and Military Forces Depression (Mental) Workplace Hazards and Violations Janet Reitman ELECTRONIC WEAPONS: Ukrainian Wild Weasels http://www.strategypage.com/htmw/htecm/articles/2024062102321.aspx StrategyPage.com urn:uuid:bb2786d0-284b-8da0-cae8-1362cff12f39 Thu, 20 Jun 2024 20:23:21 -0400 AIR DEFENSE: US Marine Corps Drone Defenses http://www.strategypage.com/htmw/htada/articles/2024062102229.aspx StrategyPage.com urn:uuid:87beea89-7501-76cc-8e7d-e7f457447f80 Thu, 20 Jun 2024 20:22:29 -0400 How AI is turning satellite imagery into a window on the future https://www.defenseone.com/technology/2024/06/how-ai-turning-satellite-imagery-window-future/397520/ Defense One - All Content urn:uuid:23d50bac-8523-a45e-b1ca-362277694476 Thu, 20 Jun 2024 19:50:25 -0400 What can a picture from space tell you? Soon, perhaps: “You're likely to have a drought here that might lead to civil unrest.” Science & Tech Patrick Tucker Newly-calved icebergs, light-colored sediment carried by meltwater and a handful of blue ponds on the interior ice are all signs of the heat wave visible in this PlanetScope image acquired on September 4, 2022. The unnamed glacier is located on Greenland’s West Coast, just north of Ilulissat Planet Killer of 2 Women in National Park in 1996 Has Been Identified, F.B.I. Says https://www.nytimes.com/2024/06/20/us/shenandoah-park-murders-1996-fbi.html NYT > Federal Bureau of Investigation urn:uuid:b050b5f2-f52e-1b67-9f2e-3dfb4462d747 Thu, 20 Jun 2024 19:49:26 -0400 A convicted serial rapist who died in an Ohio prison in 2018 was responsible for the murder of a couple at Shenandoah National Park in a case that initially was believed to be a hate crime. Hate Crimes Murders, Attempted Murders and Homicides National Parks, Monuments and Seashores Discrimination Sex Crimes Prisons and Prisoners DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) Forensic Science Ohio Richmond (Va) Associated Press Federal Bureau of Investigation Orlando Mayorquín William Goines, First Black Navy SEAL, Dies at 87 https://www.nytimes.com/2024/06/20/us/william-goines-dead.html United States Defense and Military Forces urn:uuid:0c4e3f62-193d-5e50-8caa-a9aeda32cc7e Thu, 20 Jun 2024 17:58:38 -0400 He overcame segregation at home and in the military to serve three tours in Vietnam as a member of the storied special operations unit. Goines, William (1936-2024) Deaths (Obituaries) United States Defense and Military Forces Black People Race and Ethnicity Discrimination Vietnam War Awards, Decorations and Honors Navy Seals Alex Williams NATO's Article 5 isn't as ironclad as many think https://www.defenseone.com/ideas/2024/06/natos-article-5-isnt-quite-ironclad-many-think/397507/ Defense One - All Content urn:uuid:16bb6c16-6c16-19fb-ab97-d1efb8c9c19e Thu, 20 Jun 2024 16:31:28 -0400 Alliance commitments are not quite as binding, either legally or politically, as the conventional wisdom suggests. Ideas Dan Reiter and Brian Greenhill, The Conversation If NGAD doesn't produce a sixth-gen fighter, F-35s—like these at Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska—might be pressed into service far longer than anticipated. Omar Havana/Getty Images Nine takeaways from ProPublica's investigation into Microsoft’s cybersecurity failures https://www.defenseone.com/threats/2024/06/nine-takeaways-our-investigation-microsofts-cybersecurity-failures/397449/ Defense One - All Content urn:uuid:52e2a056-ada0-0984-56eb-6ef3e594a78b Thu, 20 Jun 2024 16:19:39 -0400 A whistleblower repeatedly tried to get the tech giant to fix a security flaw that left millions of users exposed—including contractors, the State Department, and the National Nuclear Security Administration. Threats ProPublica, ProPublica A model of the Microsoft campus at the company’s headquarters in Redmond, Washington. Greg Kahn, special to ProPublica Qaeda Commander at Guantánamo Bay Is Sentenced for War Crimes https://www.nytimes.com/2024/06/20/us/politics/qaeda-commander-sentenced-guantanamo-bay.html United States Defense and Military Forces urn:uuid:5013e784-838a-d3aa-ab76-7102591c4353 Thu, 20 Jun 2024 15:37:36 -0400 A U.S. military jury decided on a 30-year prison term. But under a plea deal, the prisoner’s sentence will end in 2032. United States Defense and Military Forces Decisions and Verdicts Detainees War Crimes, Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity Military Tribunals Al Qaeda Taliban Iraqi, Abdul Hadi al- Afghanistan Guantanamo Bay Naval Base (Cuba) Afghanistan War (2001- ) Carol Rosenberg Ultrasecure comms could give special operators a leg up https://www.defenseone.com/defense-systems/2024/06/ultrasecure-comms-could-give-special-operators-leg/397499/ Defense One - All Content urn:uuid:238ffff1-f28f-8238-9d97-4615eb3a848b Thu, 20 Jun 2024 15:12:12 -0400 U.S., Norwegian commands team up to test a quantum-communications prototype. Defense Systems Lauren C. Williams A QLOAK device bolts on to a laser communications station to make its communications far more difficult to intercept, its maker says. Rhea Space Activity The D Brief: Putin, Kim sign treaty; IDF: we can’t destroy Hamas; New NATO chief?; Air-defense priority shift; And a bit more. https://www.defenseone.com/threats/2024/06/the-d-brief-june-20-2024/397485/ Defense One - All Content urn:uuid:c7c4f60a-f324-0471-ec95-50af9d8f7669 Thu, 20 Jun 2024 11:22:59 -0400 Threats Ben Watson and Bradley Peniston Early Edition: June 20, 2024 https://www.justsecurity.org/96981/early-edition-june-20-2024/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=early-edition-june-20-2024 Just Security urn:uuid:addd2cc1-ece8-4e89-22b5-91a7dd0579ad Thu, 20 Jun 2024 08:15:21 -0400 <p>Signup to receive the Early Edition in your inbox here. A curated weekday guide to major news and developments over the past 24 hours. Here’s today’s news: ISRAEL-HEZBOLLAH TENSIONS The leader of Lebanon’s Hezbollah warned of a war “without rules or ceilings” in the event of a full-scale Israeli offensive against the group. Hassan Nasrallah also [&#8230;]</p> <p>The post <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/96981/early-edition-june-20-2024/">Early Edition: June 20, 2024</a> appeared first on <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org">Just Security</a>.</p> <p>Signup to receive the Early Edition in your inbox <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/early-edition-signup/">here</a>.</p> <p>A curated weekday guide to major news and developments over the past 24 hours. Here’s today’s news:</p> <p><b><i>ISRAEL-HEZBOLLAH TENSIONS</i></b></p> <p><b>The leader of Lebanon’s Hezbollah warned of a war “without rules or ceilings” in the event of a full-scale Israeli offensive against the group. </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">Hassan </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">Nasrallah</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">also threatened that Cyprus, which has a bilateral defense cooperation agreement with Israel, could become a target if it allowed Israel to use its territory in a potential conflict. Cyprus’s president said in response yesterday evening, “Cyprus remains uninvolved in any military conflicts.” Peter Beaumont and Helena Smith reports for </span><a href="https://www.theguardian.com/world/article/2024/jun/19/hezbollah-leader-cyprus-will-be-target-if-it-lets-israel-use-its-territory-in-conflict"><span style="font-weight: 400;">The Guardian</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">; </span><a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2024/06/18/middleeast/hezbollah-drone-video-israel-haifa-intl-latam/index.html"><span style="font-weight: 400;">CNN</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> reports.</span></p> <p><b>“Operational plans for an offensive in Lebanon were approved” by top Israeli generals on Tuesday, the IDF said, </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">following the </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">recent intensification of cross-border fighting with Hezbollah</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span> <span style="font-weight: 400;">Separately, Hezbollah yesterday announced the deaths of three fighters and said it had fired dozens of rockets and shells at Israeli forces in response. Emanuel Fabian reports for </span><a href="https://www.timesofisrael.com/top-israeli-generals-approve-lebanon-offensive-battle-plans-army-says/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">The Times of Israel</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">; Rory Jones reports for the </span><a href="https://www.wsj.com/world/middle-east/israel-and-hezbollah-inch-toward-wider-war-e14b79aa?mod=world_lead_pos5"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Wall Street Journal</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">; </span></p> <p><b><i>ISRAEL-HAMAS WAR</i></b></p> <p><b>Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu publicly clashed with his coalition partners yesterday.</b><span style="font-weight: 400;"> In a statement, Netanyahu demanded that they “get a hold of themselves” and “put aside all extraneous interests” to focus on the war. The </span><a href="https://www.nytimes.com/live/2024/06/19/world/israel-gaza-war-hamas/french-court-rules-that-israeli-companies-cannot-be-banned-from-a-weapons-show-and-other-news?smid=url-share"><span style="font-weight: 400;">New York Times</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> reports.</span></p> <p><b>Israeli officials held a secret meeting in Qatar earlier this week to try bridge the gap between the U.S.-backed ceasefire deal and Hamas’s requested amendments, </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">the Saudi-owned Elaph news outlet reported. </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">Citing an unnamed official familiar with the negotiations, Elaph reported that the meeting focused largely on fine-tuning technical details, such as the number of living hostages that will be released in the first phase, and how long it will last.</span> <a href="https://www.timesofisrael.com/liveblog_entry/israeli-officials-were-in-qatar-this-week-in-attempt-to-nail-down-hostage-deal-report/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">The Times of Israel</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> reports.</span></p> <p><b>Israel cannot defeat Hamas without installing a new administration in Gaza, the IDF’s chief spokesperson said yesterday.</b><span style="font-weight: 400;"> “The idea that it is possible to destroy Hamas, to make Hamas vanish — that is throwing sand in the eyes of the public,” Rear Adm. Daniel Hagari said, adding, “If we do not bring something else to Gaza, at the end of the day, we will get Hamas.” Aaron Boxerman reports for the </span><a href="https://www.nytimes.com/live/2024/06/19/world/israel-gaza-war-hamas/without-a-plan-for-gaza-we-will-get-hamas-again-hagari-said?smid=url-share"><span style="font-weight: 400;">New York Times</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b><i>ISRAEL-HAMAS WAR — U.S. RESPONSE </i></b></p> <p><b>The U.S. military&#8217;s floating pier in Gaza is expected to resume operations today, </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">according to two U.S. officials. The pier was re-attached to the shore yesterday after being removed last Friday due to poor weather conditions, the officials said. </span><a href="https://www.reuters.com/world/middle-east/us-militarys-stop-start-gaza-pier-resume-operations-officials-say-2024-06-19/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Reuters</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> reports; Hayley Britzky and Natasha Bertrand report for </span><a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2024/06/19/politics/us-pier-gaza-reattached-second-time/index.html"><span style="font-weight: 400;">CNN</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b><i>GLOBAL DEVELOPMENTS</i></b></p> <p><b>A new agreement reached by Russia and North Korea requires both countries to use all available means to provide immediate military assistance in the event of war,</b><span style="font-weight: 400;"> North Korean state media reported today. South Korea has condemned the agreement and </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">said it will reconsider its policy of limiting its support to Ukraine to non-lethal supplies.</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> Tong-Hyung reports for </span><a href="https://apnews.com/article/north-korea-russia-kim-jong-un-putin-military-assistance-war-d9bb8aee7eb1a692b932337578fb3e30"><span style="font-weight: 400;">AP News</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">. </span></p> <p><b>Russian president Vladimir Putin arrived in Vietnam&#8217;s capital Hanoi yesterday following his visit to Pyongyang. </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">Putin signed a series of deals with his Vietnamese counterpart, including agreements to further cooperation on education, science and technology, oil and gas exploration, and health. His two-day visit has drawn criticism from the United States. Aniruddha Ghosal reports for </span><a href="https://apnews.com/article/vietnam-russia-putin-visit-98891f7ec2565b79e4c255a7d7d2f6ed"><span style="font-weight: 400;">AP News</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">; Helen Regan reports for </span><a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2024/06/19/asia/vietnam-russia-putin-visit-intl-hnk/index.html"><span style="font-weight: 400;">CNN</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b>The Chinese coast guard boarded Philippine navy vessels </b><b>and damaged and confiscated equipment this week, severely injuring one sailor</b><b>, </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">the Philippines announced yesterday. </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">The United States shares a mutual defense treaty with the Philippines, and has stressed that an armed attack on Philippine military vessels or personnel in the South China Sea would trigger a U.S. military response. The U.S. military said yesterday it is watching the situation “very closely.”</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> Sofia Tomacruz and Rebecca Tan report for the </span><a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/2024/06/19/philippines-south-china-sea-sailor/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Washington Post</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">; Nectar Gan and Kathleen Magramo report for </span><a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2024/06/20/asia/philippines-footage-south-china-sea-clash-china-intl-hnk/index.html"><span style="font-weight: 400;">CNN</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b>U.S. Central Command said yesterday it had conducted an airstrike in Syria that killed a senior official in the self-styled Islamic state group.</b><span style="font-weight: 400;"> “His death will disrupt ISIS’s ability to resource and conduct terror attacks,” CENTCOM said in a </span><a href="https://x.com/CENTCOM/status/1803488203925500179"><span style="font-weight: 400;">post</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> on X, adding, “There is no indication any civilians were harmed in this strike.” </span><a href="https://www.reuters.com/world/middle-east/us-army-kills-senior-islamic-state-official-syria-2024-06-19/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Reuters</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> reports.</span></p> <p><b>Iran condemned Canada&#8217;s listing of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps as a terrorist organization as “an unwise and unconventional politically-motivated step,” </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">a foreign ministry spokesperson was quoted as saying by the semi-official Fars news agency today. </span><a href="https://www.reuters.com/world/iran-condemns-canadas-listing-revolutionary-guards-terrorist-group-2024-06-20/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Reuters</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> reports.</span></p> <p><b>Russia said yesterday it is awaiting a U.S. response to its proposals for a possible exchange of prisoners, an apparent reference to U.S. citizens detained in Russia, including Wall Street Journal reporter Evan Gershkovich. </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">The State Department declined to comment. Ann M. Simmons reports for the </span><a href="https://www.wsj.com/world/russia/russia-says-it-is-awaiting-u-s-response-on-prisoner-swap-4d3fbed8?mod=world_lead_pos4"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Wall Street Journal</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b>Russia yesterday accused France of triggering instability in the Caucasus after Paris agreed to sell its Caesar artillery weapons to Armenia amid growing tensions with Azerbaijan.</b><span style="font-weight: 400;"> “Paris is provoking another round of armed confrontation in the South Caucasus, and they are doing it in different ways. This [sale] is another step,” Russian media quoted a foreign ministry spokesperson as saying. Pierre Emmanuel Ngendakumana and Gabriel Gavin report for </span><a href="https://www.politico.eu/article/russia-accuse-france-fomenting-war-caucasus-arms-sale/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">POLITICO</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b>At least five people were killed yesterday in the bombardment of a town in eastern Congo&#8217;s North Kivu province, </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">an army spokesperson said, accusing the M23 rebel group of the attack. Yassin Kombi reports for </span><a href="https://www.reuters.com/world/africa/dr-congo-says-five-people-killed-rebel-bombing-eastern-town-2024-06-19/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Reuters</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b>Mass protests have erupted in parts of Kenya over proposed tax hikes, resulting in at least 283 arrests since Tuesday, </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">according to civil society groups. Nimi Princewill reports for </span><a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2024/06/19/africa/kenyans-protest-tax-hikes-intl/index.html"><span style="font-weight: 400;">CNN</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b>Somalia&#8217;s government has asked African peacekeepers to slow their withdrawal and warned of a potential “security vacuum,” with neighboring countries concerned that resurgent al Shabaab militants could seize power</b><span style="font-weight: 400;">.  Abdi Sheikh, Aaron Ross, and Giulia Paravicini report for </span><a href="https://www.reuters.com/world/africa/somalia-asks-peacekeepers-slow-withdrawal-fears-islamist-resurgence-2024-06-20/#:~:text=MOGADISHU%2C%20June%2020%20(Reuters),Shabaab%20militants%20could%20seize%20power."><span style="font-weight: 400;">Reuters</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b>Gang violence in Haiti has displaced nearly 580,000 people, according to a new report from the U.N. migration agency.</b><span style="font-weight: 400;"> Evens Sanon and Coral Murphy Marcos report for </span><a href="https://apnews.com/article/haiti-gang-violence-displacement-0f1a492c9231161a54037ca5b9b7e676"><span style="font-weight: 400;">AP News</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b><i>DOMESTIC DEVELOPMENTS</i></b></p> <p><b>Louisiana has ordered every public school classroom up to university level to display the Ten Commandments, an unprecedented measure </b><b>civil rights groups say they will challenge. </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">In a joint statement, the American Civil Liberties Union, the American Civil Liberties Union of Louisiana, and two other groups said the law was “blatantly unconstitutional.” </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">Max Matza reports for </span><a href="https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/articles/cp66xdxj0l3o"><span style="font-weight: 400;">BBC News</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b>A bipartisan U.S. congressional delegation met with the Dalai Lama yesterday at his residence in India’s Dharamshala. </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">The visit sparked anger from China, which views the exiled leader as a dangerous separatist. The lawmakers said a key focus of their visit was to underscore the Resolve Tibet Act, passed by Congress last week, which aims to encourage dialogue between the Dalai Lama and Chinese officials. Ashwini Bhatia and Krutika Pathi report for </span><a href="https://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/us-lawmakers-meet-dalai-lama-indias-dharamshala-sparking-111241872"><span style="font-weight: 400;">ABC News</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><b><i>RUSSIA-UKRAINE DEVELOPMENTS</i></b></p> <p><b>A Russian-American woman arrested in January while visiting family in Russia went on trial for alleged treason today. </b><span style="font-weight: 400;">Russian authorities have accused her of fundraising to send money to the Ukrainian military</span><b>.</b><span style="font-weight: 400;"> Ksenia Karelina’s trial will be held behind closed doors, and she faces a sentence of 12 years to life if found guilty. </span><a href="https://www.reuters.com/world/europe/russian-american-woman-goes-trial-treason-after-donating-funds-ukraine-2024-06-20/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Reuters</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> reports; Christian Edwards reports for </span><a href="https://edition.cnn.com/2024/06/20/europe/ksenia-karelina-trial-begin-russia-intl/index.html"><span style="font-weight: 400;">CNN</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p>The post <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/96981/early-edition-june-20-2024/">Early Edition: June 20, 2024</a> appeared first on <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org">Just Security</a>.</p> Daily News Roundup Beatrice Yahia What Happens When We Get What We Pay for: Generative AI and the Sale of Digital Authenticity https://www.justsecurity.org/96924/generative-ai-and-the-sale-of-digital-authenticity/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=generative-ai-and-the-sale-of-digital-authenticity Just Security urn:uuid:a5868e41-75c8-6b22-e4d0-32a9daf026d0 Thu, 20 Jun 2024 08:06:57 -0400 <p>As social media platforms become inundated with AI-generated disinformation, digital authenticity and amplification should not be for sale. </p> <p>The post <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/96924/generative-ai-and-the-sale-of-digital-authenticity/">What Happens When We Get What We Pay for: Generative AI and the Sale of Digital Authenticity</a> appeared first on <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org">Just Security</a>.</p> <p><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Editor&#8217;s Note: This article represents the next installment of our <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/96881/symposium-on-ai-and-human-rights/">Symposium on AI and Human Rights</a>, co-hosted with the Promise Institute for Human Rights at UCLA School of Law.</span></em></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">In May 2023, an </span><a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/technology/2023/05/22/pentagon-explosion-ai-image-hoax/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">AI-generated image</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> depicting an explosion at the Pentagon went viral. Images of the building encased in dark smoke swept across social media, gaining such traction that the </span><a href="https://apnews.com/article/pentagon-explosion-misinformation-stock-market-ai-96f534c790872fde67012ee81b5ed6a4"><span style="font-weight: 400;">stock market</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> dipped, with the S&amp;P 500 dropping briefly as the public processed the possibility of an attack on the Department of Defense. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Why was the deepfake of the Pentagon explosion so convincing? Rapid advances in generative AI certainly played a part, increasing the quality of the images.  But the deepfake also gained traction because some of the images circulating on social media were shared by a verified account for “Bloomberg Feed.” The images, however,  were not  posted by </span><i><span style="font-weight: 400;">Bloomberg News</span></i><span style="font-weight: 400;"> at all, but rather a verified account purchased in imitation of its name.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">As we collectively grapple with how to manage the onslaught of misinformation associated with advances in generative AI, separating truth from fiction is increasingly difficult. An array of innovative solutions are being explored to bolster online users’ understanding of content authenticity and provenance, such as through </span><a href="https://www.nbcnews.com/tech/tech-news/google-joins-ai-watermarking-coalition-deepfakes-hit-mainstream-tech-p-rcna137368"><span style="font-weight: 400;">digital watermarking initiatives</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> and visible labels on </span><a href="https://www.theverge.com/2024/5/9/24152667/tiktok-ai-generated-label-content-credentials-cai-c2pa"><span style="font-weight: 400;">AI-generated content</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> based on metadata tags. But these initiatives come with important </span><a href="https://www.theverge.com/2023/10/31/23940626/artificial-intelligence-ai-digital-watermarks-biden-executive-order"><span style="font-weight: 400;">privacy trade-offs</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">. As we enter a more complex and dangerous  information environment, one of the </span><a href="https://www.economist.com/leaders/2024/01/18/ai-generated-content-is-raising-the-value-of-trust"><span style="font-weight: 400;">best signals</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> we’ll have about the trustworthiness of online content is not just what is posted, but the credibility and authenticity of the person posting it.</span></p> <h2><b>Authenticity For Sale</b></h2> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">One of the main markers of authenticity on social media is the coveted “verified account” status. Historically, this has been an indicator such as a blue check mark or similar symbol granted to accounts when platforms confirm that they are who they say they are. But for many social media platforms, the policies underlying account verification have been degraded at a time when their integrity is paramount &#8211; as we enter the era of generative AI. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">As has been widely covered, X (formerly known as Twitter) dramatically modified its verification policies under the leadership of Elon Musk (I previously worked as human rights counsel for Twitter before the takeover). Musk </span><a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2023/03/31/technology/personaltech/twitter-blue-check-musk.html"><span style="font-weight: 400;">made headlines</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> when he decided that, rather than giving the status to notable public figures, verification would be open to anyone for a monthly fee. X recently extended verified status to certain other “influential” users, but the symbol has been so degraded that many </span><a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/technology/2024/04/04/twitter-blue-check-restored-x/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">no longer even want it</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">On </span><a href="https://help.instagram.com/733907830039577"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Facebook and Instagram</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">, verification is – somewhat confusingly – both available for sale and provided for free to certain notable accounts, with identical status symbols afforded under both regimes. While Meta’s verification scheme is tied to proof of a user’s authentic identity, it is nevertheless monetized at a cost that may render it unaffordable for some who deserve it. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Incredibly, LinkedIn verification is actually tied to your consent to provide its partners, such as </span><a href="https://www.linkedin.com/help/linkedin/answer/a1458457"><span style="font-weight: 400;">CLEAR</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">, with your biometric information. In LinkedIn’s case, verification is indeed up for sale, but the price is not in dollars, but rather in access to your biometric data. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">To be clear: verification is not just a status symbol. On some social media platforms, verification policies do not only affect how content is perceived, but also how it is amplified across the platform. X, for example, has been </span><a href="https://twitter.com/TwitterBlue/status/1602426805616578564?s=20"><span style="font-weight: 400;">open</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> about the fact that content from users who pay for verification will be amplified over that of other users with priority in replies, mentions, and searches. At a time when finding the signal in the AI-generated noise is about to be harder than ever, digital authenticity and amplification should not be for sale. </span></p> <h2><b>Verification as a Public Good</b></h2> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The core problem is that verification doesn’t just affect the person or account posting on social media: it impacts everyone who depends upon the information they share. Consider </span><a href="https://twitter.com/KyivIndependent/status/1800687341339816118"><span style="font-weight: 400;">posts</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> by journalists in Kyiv sharing air raid alerts in a war zone, the Supreme Court sharing the outcome of a judicial decision, or aid workers circulating information in the wake of an earthquake or other natural disaster. In these situations, access to credible, authoritative information is at least as important as the rights and interests of those posting the information in the first place. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The social media accounts for each of these individuals and organizations need to be verified for the sake of users — not the account-holders — and the matter shouldn’t be left up to whether the account-holder decides to (or has the ability to pay for) the privilege. Think of verification as a “public good” in economics: everyone benefits from having key voices receive a marker of authenticity, and it&#8217;s hard to measure how much we all benefit from knowing who’s who. </span></p> <h2><b>The Consequences of Pay-to-Verify Systems</b></h2> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">What are the risks of the current situation? As with the case of the Pentagon deepfake, misguided policies on account verification expose social media users to increased risks of being misled by verified accounts impersonating respected entities or individuals. Plenty of people have already flagged the risks of impersonation as a result of Musk’s verification regime, but this was mostly in the context of egregious (and yes, </span><a href="https://www.businessinsider.com/elon-musk-twitter-blue-most-shocking-verified-account-impersonations-2022-11#tweet-from-toy-brand-american-girl-impersonator-6"><span style="font-weight: 400;">sometimes hilarious</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">) brand impersonation. But the impersonation of human rights defenders and organizations has </span><a href="https://www.hrw.org/news/2022/11/12/musk-chaos-raises-serious-rights-concerns-over-twitter"><span style="font-weight: 400;">potentially deadly</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> consequences for both those being impersonated and those relying on what they say. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Imagine if a Russian-aligned actor impersonates the International Committee of the Red Cross in Ukraine, then shares false information about humanitarian corridors (routes through which refugees can evacuate safely from a war zone). Imagine if a prominent human rights activist in </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">Saudi Arabia — a country where homosexuality is punishable by death — is impersonated by an account purporting to come out as gay. Imagine someone impersonating the World Food Programme in Mali “admitting” to colluding with armed groups – imperiling the entire organization’s staff in one of the world’s deadliest countries for aid workers. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Or don’t imagine at all, but consider that — amidst mass violence in Sudan — a </span><i><span style="font-weight: 400;">verified</span></i><span style="font-weight: 400;"> account impersonating a paramilitary group known as the Rapid Support Forces </span><a href="https://www.vice.com/en/article/93kyj5/twitter-blue-fake-account-sudan-misinformation"><span style="font-weight: 400;">falsely claimed</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> that its leader, Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo (also known as Hemedti), died in combat. The impact of mis- and disinformation is greater when it comes from a verified account, and the harm can be irreparable.</span></p> <h2><b>Amplifying Dangerous Voices</b></h2> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">How else could this go sideways? Well, let’s think about who gladly </span><i><span style="font-weight: 400;">would </span></i><span style="font-weight: 400;">pay for verification. Dangerous individuals and organizations who have previously been denied verification are arguably those that stand to benefit most from a pay-to-play system. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The Taliban, for example, </span><a href="https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-64294613"><span style="font-weight: 400;">leapt</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> at the opportunity to obtain verification. Incredibly, Afghanistan was one of the places Musk’s verification changes were rolled out. This suggests that, at least temporarily, X was amplifying the speech of verified Taliban accounts over those of local human rights activists that couldn’t afford to pay for the privilege (as roughly 91% of </span><a href="https://www.rescue.org/article/afghanistan-entire-population-pushed-poverty"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Afghani household income</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> is spent on food). </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Dynamics will be similar in authoritarian and unstable democracies regimes around the world. The voices of brave activists risk being drowned out by regime-aligned accounts with a vested interest in spreading disinformation and the resources to afford to amplify their reach through verification. In stable democracies, too, particularly during consequential moments around elections and events that precipitate political turmoil, an ill-informed verification process risks fundamentally distorting the information ecosystem in ways that are at once obvious and difficult to predict. </span></p> <p style="text-align: center;"><b>***</b></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The coming wave of AI-generated misinformation comes amidst a “human rights recession” in the tech industry: a </span><a href="https://www.nbcnews.com/tech/tech-news/big-tech-companies-reveal-trust-safety-cuts-disclosures-senate-judicia-rcna145435"><span style="font-weight: 400;">retraction</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> of commitments and investments in teams and </span><a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/technology/2024/04/29/meta-oversight-board-layoffs/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">functions</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> focused on protecting user trust and safety as well as those responsible for thinking through the unintended impacts of platform changes on vulnerable and marginalized communities. Civil society, government, and journalists play critical roles but cannot address this problem alone. We also need voices inside of technology companies – people who understand the intricacies of often-opaque technology products and policies – to advocate for the rights of those that are disproportionately impacted by decisions taken about our digital civic spaces. We especially need internal advocates with expertise in international humanitarian and human rights law frameworks </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">and an understanding of conflict dynamics to consider how changes to platform products and policies might expose the most at-risk communities on earth to harm.  </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Preventing the spread of AI-generated misinformation and verification is inextricably linked to the ability to identify credible sources of information. While important in any context,  it is particularly essential for those in the Global Majority that depend upon social media for critical information – in war zones, during natural disasters and elections, and on a range of issues fundamental to their safety and human rights.   </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">As Musk has </span><a href="https://mobile.twitter.com/elonmusk/status/1637198368714772486"><span style="font-weight: 400;">said</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> repeatedly, we get what we pay for. But, in an era of AI-generated misinformation, let’s be very clear about the price we stand to pay. </span></p> <h6><em>IMAGE: A photo illustration depicts numerous deep faked videos of TV personalities that had been used to sell spurious medical products online. (Photo by STEFANI REYNOLDS/AFP via Getty Images)</em></h6> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The post <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/96924/generative-ai-and-the-sale-of-digital-authenticity/">What Happens When We Get What We Pay for: Generative AI and the Sale of Digital Authenticity</a> appeared first on <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org">Just Security</a>.</p> Artificial Intelligence Cyber Disinformation Human Rights Humanitarian Technology AI Misinformation Social Media Shannon Raj Singh Symposium: ICC Prosecutor Launches Policy on Complementarity and Cooperation https://www.justsecurity.org/96975/icc-prosecutor-policy-complementarity-cooperation/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=icc-prosecutor-policy-complementarity-cooperation Just Security urn:uuid:e4ff3dbd-a0ed-80e1-068c-8d688e18eda8 Thu, 20 Jun 2024 02:07:21 -0400 <p>A Hub for International Criminal Accountability</p> <p>The post <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/96975/icc-prosecutor-policy-complementarity-cooperation/">Symposium: ICC Prosecutor Launches Policy on Complementarity and Cooperation</a> appeared first on <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org">Just Security</a>.</p> <p><em>Editor’s note: This is part of </em>Just Security’s <em><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/tag/icc-policy-on-complementarity/">Symposium on the ICC OTP’s Policy on Complementarity and Cooperation</a>.</em></p> <p>Today, June 20, the Office of the Prosecutor (OTP) of the International Criminal Court (ICC) hosts the next event launching its new <a href="https://www.icc-cpi.int/news/policy-complementarity-and-cooperation-2024">Policy on Complementarity and Cooperation</a>, this event at The Hague, with the participation of State Parties, civil society and international organizations, and other partners of the ICC community. This follows a series of simultaneous launch events in Bogotá, Colombia, and Bangui, Central African Republic, in April 2024, and a consultation process that started in October 2023.</p> <p>The new Policy distils a number of OTP practices of complementarity (the international legal principle under which the ICC is intended to complement, rather than replace, national criminal systems) and cooperation with national systems, and describes a new and comprehensive path forward. In the new Policy, the OTP becomes a hub for accountability efforts, partnering with national authorities and regional accountability mechanisms. I participated in the creation of the policy in my role as Special Advisory on Complementarity to the Prosecutor.</p> <p>The Policy’s cornerstone is the OTP’s strategy of a <strong>two-track approach</strong>. The Office seeks to engage in partnership with States to promote cooperation and complementary action, while remaining attentive of its mandate to investigate and prosecute Rome Statute crimes.</p> <p>This approach is crucial, as it highlights the reinforcing relation between the OTP’s partnership and cooperation with domestic authorities, and its continuing vigilance to ensure that the ICC’s mandate is fulfilled when it is warranted. To that effect, the Policy is structured around four pillars:</p> <ul> <li><strong><em>Creating a community of practice</em></strong>. The OTP will promote spaces for the exchange of information and ideas with national authorities, tracking domestic proceedings relating to core international crimes developments. In particular, the Policy emphasizes the creation of a Complementarity and Cooperation Forum, the establishment of Situation Briefs, the expansion of secondments of personnel from State Parties to the OTP, and the strengthening of support and assistance to national authorities, among other measures that will increase the points of contact between States and the OTP.</li> <li><strong><em>Leveraging technology as an accelerant for justice</em></strong>. The OTP will reinforce its information systems to enhance evidence management, both for the Office’s own needs, and analyze evidence and share materials derived from requests for assistance from States.</li> <li><strong><em>Bringing justice to the communities</em></strong>. The OTP will establish field offices, initially in Ukraine, Venezuela, Bangladesh, and Libya. Moreover, through the Policy, the OTP seeks to strengthen collaboration with civil society organizations, national authorities, and specialised accountability mechanisms. Similarly, the OTP will seek to hold at least part of the proceedings before the Court in the situation country or region, seeking to be as close as possible to the affected communities.</li> <li><strong><em>Harnessing cooperation mechanisms. </em></strong>Finally, building on its <a href="https://www.eurojust.europa.eu/taxonomy/term/406">collaboration</a> with Eurojust, the European Union Agency for Criminal Justice Cooperation, to establish a Joint Investigation Team (JIT) on alleged core international crimes, the OTP will seek to identify opportunities to cooperate with other national authorities, transitional justice mechanisms, and other rule of law and accountability actors, in support of their investigations and prosecutions.</li> </ul> <p>The OTP’s new Policy offers a comprehensive approach to complementarity and cooperation. Through its two-track approach, the Policy positions the OTP as a veritable hub for international criminal justice, and creates a workable framework for catalyzing genuine domestic proceedings, while remaining vigilant if States fail to prosecute Rome Statute crimes.</p> <p>Over the next few weeks, <em>Just Security</em> will host a series of guest posts that examine the Policy from different perspectives, which will be added here as they are published:</p> <ul> <li><strong>Maria Elena Vignoli &amp; Danya Chaikel, <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/96955/getting-the-balance-right-complementarity/">Two Tracks, One Destination? The Importance of Getting the Balance Right on Complementarity</a></strong> (June 20, 2024)</li> </ul> <h6><em>IMAGE: The International Criminal Court (via Getty Images).</em></h6> <p>The post <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/96975/icc-prosecutor-policy-complementarity-cooperation/">Symposium: ICC Prosecutor Launches Policy on Complementarity and Cooperation</a> appeared first on <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org">Just Security</a>.</p> Featured Articles International Justice ICC Policy on Complementarity ICC Prosecutor International Criminal Court (ICC) International Criminal Law International Law René Urueña Two Tracks, One Destination? The Importance of Getting the Balance Right on Complementarity https://www.justsecurity.org/96955/getting-the-balance-right-complementarity/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=getting-the-balance-right-complementarity Just Security urn:uuid:ccee0e2d-25d7-3547-7cf0-14692669485a Thu, 20 Jun 2024 01:48:53 -0400 <p>Getting the balance right between partnership and vigilance is far from easy, but it is crucial if the OTP is to fulfill the promise of a Rome Statute system that is able to deliver credible justice for victims of serious crimes, either before the ICC or domestic courts.</p> <p>The post <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/96955/getting-the-balance-right-complementarity/">Two Tracks, One Destination? The Importance of Getting the Balance Right on Complementarity</a> appeared first on <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org">Just Security</a>.</p> <p><em>Editor&#8217;s note: This is part of </em>Just Security&#8217;s <em><a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/tag/icc-policy-on-complementarity/">Symposium on the ICC OTP&#8217;s Policy on Complementarity and Cooperation</a>.</em></p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">The new <a href="https://www.icc-cpi.int/news/policy-complementarity-and-cooperation-2024">policy</a> of the International Criminal Court (ICC)’s Office of the Prosecutor (OTP or the Office) on complementarity and cooperation outlines a two-track approach to the OTP’s application of the complementarity principle, under which the ICC is a court of last resort that steps in only when national authorities are unwilling or unable to do so. On one track, the Office seeks to actively support domestic justice efforts by strengthening its partnership with national authorities, an area of work long-termed “positive complementarity.” On the other track, it remains vigilant and ready to step in where necessary to investigate and prosecute Rome Statute crimes, even while continuing to support complementary domestic justice efforts.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">The policy presents these tracks as mutually reinforcing and parallel. Indeed, since the establishment of the ICC, successive prosecutors have paired investigations in situation countries with a commitment to support national authorities, <a href="https://www.icc-cpi.int/sites/default/files/NR/rdonlyres/D673DD8C-D427-4547-BC69-2D363E07274B/143708/ProsecutorialStrategy20060914_English.pdf">at</a> <a href="https://www.icc-cpi.int/sites/default/files/NR/rdonlyres/66A8DCDC-3650-4514-AA62-D229D1128F65/281506/OTPProsecutorialStrategy20092013.pdf">least</a> <a href="https://www.icc-cpi.int/sites/default/files/iccdocs/otp/OTP-Strategic-Plan-2013.pdf">on</a> <a href="https://www.icc-cpi.int/sites/default/files/iccdocs/otp/070715-OTP_Strategic_Plan_2016-2018.pdf">paper</a>. As noted in the policy, a <a href="https://www.legal-tools.org/doc/8mksx9/">2003 paper on positive complementarity</a> submitted by experts to the OTP termed these two tracks “partnership” and “vigilance,” emphasizing the need for the Office to invest in both to ensure the effective implementation of complementarity.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">What’s notable here is that the overwhelming focus of the new policy is on partnership. In his preface “A Renewed Partnership for Accountability,” the Prosecutor emphasizes that: “[a]bove all, this new policy and the innovative approach it outlines is founded on the principle of partnership” (page 6). While being clear that “if States do not step up, the Office will not hesitate to fulfill its mandate” (para. 4), the policy lacks detail on how it intends to exercise this vigilance.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">This is not just a rhetorical point. It raises real concerns that the implementation of this policy could result in an excessive focus on support for and deference to some national authorities, leaving victims without credible avenues for justice. The new emphasis on partnership has coincided with the Prosecutor’s decision to close two preliminary examinations (<a href="https://www.icc-cpi.int/news/icc-prosecutor-mr-karim-khan-qc-concludes-preliminary-examination-situation-colombia">Colombia</a> and <a href="https://www.icc-cpi.int/news/statement-icc-prosecutor-karim-aa-khan-kc-regarding-opening-trial-related-events-28-september">Guinea</a>) in deference to national efforts, and complete investigative activities in four situations since 2021 (<a href="https://www.icc-cpi.int/news/prosecutor-international-criminal-court-karim-aa-khan-kc-announces-conclusion-investigation-0">Central African Republic</a>, <a href="https://www.icc-cpi.int/news/prosecutor-international-criminal-court-karim-aa-khan-kc-announces-conclusion-investigation-0">Georgia</a>, <a href="https://www.icc-cpi.int/news/statement-icc-deputy-prosecutor-nazhat-shameem-khan-announcing-her-decision-conclude">Kenya</a>, and <a href="https://www.icc-cpi.int/news/statement-prosecutor-international-criminal-court-karim-aa-khan-kc-announcing-his-decision">Uganda</a>).The likelihood of credible accountability through domestic proceedings in some of these situations is uncertain.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">This highlights the need for the Office to carefully walk the line between the two tracks when implementing this policy and to use its unique leverage to ensure that justice is effectively delivered, at the ICC and in domestic courts.</p> <h2 style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>The Office of the Prosecutor as a Catalyst for Political Will</strong></h2> <p style="font-weight: 400;">While recognizing a role for the OTP in catalyzing genuine domestic proceedings (para. 4), the policy <a href="https://www.hrw.org/news/2023/11/14/human-rights-watch-comments-international-criminal-court-office-prosecutor">never deals with it directly</a>. To be sure, this role can be built, in part, on partnership. The Office’s support for and cooperation with national authorities can help to hold these authorities to account for their commitments on justice, whether the ICC investigates or not. But support and cooperation alone are not always enough. They are most likely to work when national authorities have at least a measure of willingness to support credible domestic justice.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Unsurprisingly, the lack of political will is often one of the main obstacles to advancement of domestic proceedings.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><a href="https://www.hrw.org/report/2018/05/03/pressure-point-iccs-impact-national-justice/lessons-colombia-georgia-guinea-and">Observations</a> from Human Rights Watch (where one of us works) on the interaction between the OTP and national authorities during its preliminary examinations in Guinea, Colombia, Georgia, and the United Kingdom (i.e. when the Office was considering whether to open an investigation in these situations) indicated that its leverage with national authorities to move them toward support for genuine proceedings appeared to depend on the level of concern these authorities had regarding the prospect of an ICC investigation, combined with the Office’s posture and engagement. Human Rights Watch’s research shows that there is a real opening for the OTP through vigilance to increase its effectiveness as a catalyst for justice.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">The new policy refers to the OTP’s practice of inviting timely responses from national authorities to the Office’s requests for information in the context of its admissibility assessment (para. 155). This is one way in which the OTP can exert pressure on national authorities to show that they are genuinely investigating and prosecuting crimes under the jurisdiction of the Court.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Other ways for the Office to catalyze progress at the domestic level include: increasing transparency, including by identifying benchmarks for national authorities to demonstrate they are investigating and prosecuting the crimes and to make them public; and investing in strategic alliances, including with civil society. We explore these below and assess to what extent they are addressed in the policy.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>1. Increasing Transparency</em></p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">From 2011 to 2020, the OTP issued <a href="https://www.icc-cpi.int/about/otp/otp-policies">annual reports</a> on its preliminary examinations. Over time, these reports became important points of reference for various stakeholders. They included factual and legal assessments that could be used by civil society organizations to support their advocacy to advance progress in justice at the domestic level, for example through the legal characterization of certain acts as crimes under the jurisdiction of the Court.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">These reports put pressure on national authorities to meet their obligations to investigate and prosecute serious crimes, including by publicly laying out the OTP’s assessment of national proceedings and what countries should do to avoid ICC intervention. At times, these reports signaled key benchmarks or obstacles to advancing genuine domestic proceedings, providing a map not only to national authorities as to necessary steps, but to partners seeking to directly engage those authorities.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">They also provided a singular measure of recognition to victims that the crimes committed against them were under consideration. And they included information on ICC processes – and the potential for genuine national proceedings – that better equipped them to exercise their rights before the ICC as well as at the domestic level.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">These reports were discontinued and substituted in <a href="https://www.icc-cpi.int/news/annual-report-office-prosecutor-2022">2022</a> and <a href="https://www.icc-cpi.int/news/annual-report-office-prosecutor-2023">2023</a> with annual reports that offer an overview of all the OTP’s activities, but lacked the level of detail generally provided in the previous reporting on preliminary examinations.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">During consultations on the new policy, 42 civil society groups, including our two organizations, <a href="https://www.hrw.org/news/2023/11/14/joint-ngo-comments-draft-policy-complementarity-and-cooperation-september-2023">asked the OTP </a>to commit to regular, detailed, situation-specific public reporting in any context in which it is actively supporting national proceedings, in order to recoup the benefits for national justice of the prior reporting practice.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">The OTP seems to have been partially responsive to this input, and the final version of the policy includes several references to the Office’s intention to enhance its reporting on complementarity and cooperation activities (paras. 22, 36, 84, and 177). However, the policy falls short of committing to the type of detailed, situation-specific public reporting civil society groups have asked for.</p> <p><em>2. Investing in a Genuine Strategic Alliance with Civil Society</em></p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Civil society organizations have been strategic allies of the ICC since its inception. They often bridge the gap between the Court and victims of Rome Statute crimes, amplifying victims’ voices and facilitating their access to justice. This includes documenting crimes under the jurisdiction of the Court, informing victims and affected communities about the Court and its proceedings – often filling the gaps of the Court’s capacity to carry out its own outreach – and facilitating their interaction and engagement with the Court.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">They can also be important complementarity partners, for example, as sources of information in addition to national authorities for the OTP’s admissibility assessment, and they can support and amplify the Office’s efforts to exert pressure for progress in domestic proceedings. So, it is essential to ensure that civil society organizations can play an active role in the implementation of this policy.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">This is critical as the OTP cannot be expected to single-handedly transform the national accountability landscape and play its vigilance role alone. Particularly when powerful political interests are working against justice, the Office needs the backing of other partners, such as civil society, to catalyze political will.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">The policy appears to recognize the importance of this alliance, and it includes a section dedicated specifically to “Strengthening Engagement with Civil Society Organisations” under the pillar “Bringing Justice Closer to Communities.” During consultations around the policy, civil society organizations <a href="https://www.fidh.org/en/issues/international-justice/international-criminal-court-icc/q-a-unpacking-the-icc-office-of-the-prosecutor-s-new-approach-to#Q8">actively engaged</a> with the OTP to further strengthen this section, which now includes additional language to acknowledge the importance of engagement with victims and civil society organizations for the effective implementation of the policy (paras. 82-83); to reflect the mutually beneficial relationship between the OTP and civil society (para. 83); and to invite exchange on how to deepen engagement and address the multi-layered challenges that may affect civil society’s interaction with the Office (para. 85).</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Translating this commitment into practice, however, will take more work on the part of the OTP. Over the last three years, civil society organizations have raised serious concerns about a decline in transparency from and meaningful dialogue with the Office, which led several members of the International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH) (where one of us works) to say that they feel reduced to mere spectators, <a href="https://www.fidh.org/en/issues/international-justice/international-criminal-court-icc/q-a-unpacking-the-icc-office-of-the-prosecutor-s-new-approach-to#Q8">rather than justice partners</a>. This has included a lack of meaningful two-way communication around the Prosecutor and the Office’s visits to situation countries and their engagement with national authorities, lack of engagement with civil society during these visits, and lack of publicity of the Memoranda of Understanding and agreements between the OTP and national authorities.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">One way to course correct is for the OTP to include civil society in the newly developed “Cooperation and Complementarity Forum” (paras. 38-45), as FIDH and other organizations have recommended. That forum is intended to facilitate technical assistance between the Office and national authorities from both States Parties and non-States Parties. While the policy does not explicitly include civil society organizations – many of whom are deeply engaged in efforts to support national authorities – in the forum yet, the Office should consider how to do that as it operationalizes the forum.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">The policy includes a commitment to establish a separate “enhanced structural dialogue” between the OTP and civil society (para. 84), which still requires clarity and a solid action plan.</p> <h2 style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>The Need for Consistency </strong></h2> <p style="font-weight: 400;">The policy also does not lay out clear criteria regarding the OTP’s decisions to prioritize support to national authorities in certain situations and not others. This lack of transparency, coupled with perceived inconsistencies in applying the complementarity principle across the OTP’s docket, raises concerns about double standards and fairness despite the Office’s promise that it “will always endeavor to act consistently across all situations by seeking out and inviting opportunities for engagement at every turn” (para. 8).</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">For example, it is significant that the policy <a href="https://www.icc-cpi.int/news/icc-office-prosecutor-launches-policy-complementarity-and-cooperation">was launched</a> from Colombia and the Central African Republic, as well as during the Office’s meeting in Tunisia with civil society groups working on the Libya situation. These are situations in which the OTP has <a href="https://www.icc-cpi.int/news/icc-prosecutor-mr-karim-khan-qc-concludes-preliminary-examination-situation-colombia">concluded a preliminary examination</a> and <a href="https://www.icc-cpi.int/news/prosecutor-international-criminal-court-karim-aa-khan-kc-announces-conclusion-investigation-0">completed</a> (or <a href="https://www.icc-cpi.int/sites/default/files/2024-05/2024-05-14-otp-unsc-report-libya-eng.pdf">announced it is planning to complete</a>) its investigative activities, and where it is investing heavily in supporting national authorities and actively publicizing its efforts in this regard. At the same time, the OTP has not provided any information of complementarity efforts it is undertaking in other situations where it has made completion decisions, such as <a href="https://www.icc-cpi.int/news/statement-prosecutor-fatou-bensouda-conclusion-preliminary-examination-situation-iraq/united">Iraq/UK</a> and <a href="https://www.icc-cpi.int/news/statement-prosecutor-fatou-bensouda-conclusion-preliminary-examination-situation-iraq/united">Georgia</a>, and <a href="https://www.icc-cpi.int/news/statement-prosecutor-international-criminal-court-karim-khan-qc-following-application">the de-prioritized portion</a> of the Afghanistan investigation related to crimes allegedly committed by US and former Afghan government forces.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Similarly, the OTP has been vocal about its engagement with national authorities and complementarity efforts in some situations under ongoing investigation by the Office (for example, Ukraine and the Democratic Republic of Congo), and not others, raising questions about the criteria applied to such decisions.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">The policy states that “[g]iven its dynamic and interactive nature, [it] does not seek to set out a list of factors to guide when and where it might be implemented” (para. 120). However, clarity on the criteria guiding the OTP’s decisions, coupled with a practice of public reporting tracking a consistent application of the draft policy can protect the Office from accusations of bias and show that it is operating free from political or other external interference, thereby upholding the Court’s legitimacy.</p> <h2 style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>The Devil Is in the Implementation</strong></h2> <p style="font-weight: 400;">The section on the implementation of the policy is very limited and notes that “[f]ocus instead is given to developing practice &#8211; in order to illustrate the multiple ways and conditions under which the approaches set out in this policy can be given practical expression. As experience and learning build over time, it is hoped that these and other developments can in turn stimulate fresh thinking on future avenues for practice” (para. 120).</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">While a certain degree of flexibility is necessary, to ensure that the policy does not remain theoretical, and to address some of the ongoing concerns highlighted above, the OTP should:</p> <ul> <li>Design and publish a detailed implementation plan for the policy that outlines the Office’s commitments, potential benchmarks, associated indicators, and a timeline for evaluation;</li> <li>Provide additional information on how the Office is going to ensure that it strikes the right balance between the partnership and vigilance tracks, and catalyze progress at the domestic level to ensure that justice is genuinely delivered;</li> <li>Commit to regular, detailed, situation-specific reporting on preliminary examinations, investigations, and any other context in which it is actively supporting national proceedings;</li> <li>Provide clarity on the criteria it uses to decide how to prioritize its support to national authorities in certain situations over others; and</li> <li>Genuinely engage with civil society organizations in a regular and systematic way, particularly those from the relevant situation countries, on the implementation of the policy.</li> </ul> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Getting the balance right between partnership and vigilance is far from easy, but it is crucial if the OTP is to fulfill the promise of a Rome Statute system that is able to deliver credible justice for victims of serious crimes, either before the ICC or domestic courts.</p> <h6 style="font-weight: 400;"><em>IMAGE: The International Criminal Court in The Hague (via Getty Images).</em></h6> <p>The post <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org/96955/getting-the-balance-right-complementarity/">Two Tracks, One Destination? The Importance of Getting the Balance Right on Complementarity</a> appeared first on <a href="https://www.justsecurity.org">Just Security</a>.</p> International Justice civil society ICC Policy on Complementarity ICC Prosecutor International Criminal Court (ICC) International Criminal Law International Law Maria Elena Vignoli Congress Debates Expanded Draft Amid Military Recruitment Challenges https://www.nytimes.com/2024/06/19/us/politics/military-draft-women.html NYT > United States Defense and Military Forces urn:uuid:cb650a53-8864-f050-54ac-2d8bc2c9fb89 Wed, 19 Jun 2024 20:26:26 -0400 Republicans and Democrats are weighing proposals to expand military conscription to women and make registration automatic. Both proposals face an uphill path to becoming law. Draft and Recruitment (Military) United States Defense and Military Forces United States Politics and Government House of Representatives Senate Law and Legislation Women and Girls Robert Jimison WINNING: People's War in Ukraine http://www.strategypage.com/htmw/htwin/articles/2024062001137.aspx StrategyPage.com urn:uuid:080e82e6-dda6-e1dc-64f8-798bd37770f6 Wed, 19 Jun 2024 20:11:37 -0400 ELECTRONIC WEAPONS: SpaceX Stifles Russian Use of Starlink http://www.strategypage.com/htmw/htecm/articles/202406200919.aspx StrategyPage.com urn:uuid:4f5db54c-77a6-7c46-fba7-5af8892a1ff2 Wed, 19 Jun 2024 20:09:20 -0400 Battlefield Commander’s Case Goes to Guantánamo Jury https://www.nytimes.com/2024/06/19/us/politics/afghan-war-commander-guantanamo.html NYT > United States Defense and Military Forces urn:uuid:2862a83c-b06d-0a0f-80e8-6f07c2b2bb80 Wed, 19 Jun 2024 18:07:58 -0400 The panel is deciding a sentence for a prisoner who pleaded guilty to commanding Qaeda and Taliban forces in Afghanistan that carried out war crimes. Terrorism September 11 (2001) United States Defense and Military Forces Prisons and Prisoners War Crimes, Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity Detainees Afghanistan War (2001- ) Taliban Al Qaeda Iraqi, Abdul Hadi al- Afghanistan Guantanamo Bay Naval Base (Cuba) Carol Rosenberg