Value chains Value chains Respective post owners and feed distributors Tue, 27 Nov 2018 14:34:38 +0000 Feed Informer National livestock sector policies and planning under a changing global economy CGIAR Climate Blog urn:uuid:54c62088-31eb-945e-a94c-73c4c77a1d71 Mon, 10 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 <p><span style="font-family: inherit;">The livestock sector may have a key role to play in many low-and middle-income countries (LMICs): providing options for employment, poverty reduction and economic growth, while supplying animal proteins that are particularly important for improving the diets of nutritionally vulnerable segments of the population. The potential benefits of the sector must however be harnessed within the context of a rapidly changing global economy. Global trends, such as population and income growth, globalization, urbanization and climate change, all have bearings on the local dynamics of livestock value chains that policy planning for the sector will need to consider.</span></p> <aside> <p style="text-align: center;"><a href=""><img alt="" src="/sites/default/files/images/WP262_final_pdf.jpg" style="width: 212px; height: 300px;" width="212" height="300" /></a></p> <p style="text-align: center;">Read the working paper <a href=""><strong>here</strong></a>.</p> </aside> <p>The production and demand of livestock derived foods (LDFs) could change substantially in the future in many LMICs following major changes in global economic and climate conditions. A <a href="">recent report</a> assesses a <a href="">standard global model’s</a> projections of livestock production and the demand for LDFs in Ethiopia, Niger, Rwanda, Cambodia, Nepal and Burkina Faso in 2050.</p> <p>To pursue these opportunities within the contexts of long-term food security and resource sustainability; however, national policies steering agricultural exports and food prices, as well as those affecting land use and livestock feed markets may need more careful design and implementation. The need also emerges for improved harmonization around common goals, of national policies that affect livestock, including those that originate outside of the sector. For example, export trade of livestock is projected to remain important in countries such as Ethiopia. However, under high global economic growth, boosts in overseas demand for beef could adversely impact the availability of the product more locally. There may be a need for policy adjustments to deal directly with potential impacts on nutrition and health within local populations. Increased production to meet demand under such a scenario also exacerbates pressures on agricultural or other land and may call for concerted planning for livestock expansion within strategies and programs for land use and environmental management.</p> <p>The report recommends that the relevant stakeholders should be engaged early on in discussions regarding the management of the anticipated changes to livestock value chains. Given the variability of the countries included in the study, the assessments of national statistics and global model projections and reviews of national livestock policies lead to varied conclusions about which livestock sub-sectors will drive change, the major anticipated transitions and how these can be better captured within the national planning for the sector. The paper provides some initial pointers on the direction in which livestock sector planning in the study countries may need to evolve. A quick assessment of needed interventions identifies scope for increased agricultural productivity and animal feed development, particularly under global climate change. Other areas for attention are managing environmental impacts and the potential emergence of zoonotic diseases (that are infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses and parasites that spread between animals and humans).</p> <p>The report also emphasizes that model projections are not predictions for how the demand, supply or trade of LDF and related measures will evolve, but plausible outcomes based on data and current knowledge about key interactions of countries’ livestock sectors. However, the analyses are a good focal point around which to engage national stakeholders on discussions about how LDF demand and supply could transition in the different countries and the readiness of existing and planned policy or programs to accommodate these changes.</p> <p><span style="color: rgb(65, 106, 48); font-size: 18px;">Read more:</span></p> <ul> <li>Working paper:<a href=""> </a><a href="">A review of projections of demand and supply of livestock-derived foods and the implications for livestock sector management in LSIL focus countries</a></li> <li>Journal article: <a href="">Supporting sustainable expansion of livestock production in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa: Scenario analysis of investment options</a></li> </ul> <hr /> <p><em>The project was carried out under the auspices of the United States Agency for International Development (<a href="">USAID</a>) and its Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Livestock Systems (<a href="">LSIL</a>) which is managed by <span>the International Livestock Research Institute</span> (<a href="">ILRI</a>) and the <a href="">University of Florida</a>.</em></p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/> Milk and money in Malawi: Reconnaissance visit to learn about the business challenges of smallholder dairy farming CGIAR Climate Blog urn:uuid:b2786e23-6db1-e622-c4bd-b63cd1c66368 Wed, 05 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 <aside> <p style="text-align: center;"><strong>This is an excerpt from an article originally posted on the Food & Business Knowledge Platform. Read the full article </strong><a href=""><strong><strong>her</strong>e</strong></a>.</p> </aside> <p>Researchers from OSMARE<a class="simple-footnote" href="#1" id="return-note-20927-1" name="1" title="OSMARE (Understanding and Scaling Organisational Structures for Smallholder Resilience) is a 3-year research project funded by NWO and research is undertaken by Wageningen University, Vuna, Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Zimbabwe Super Seeds and CCAFS."><sup>1</sup></a> – a GCP-4 research partnership funded by NWO and implemented by a global consortium from 2018-2020 – are studying the factors that detract from or contribute to resilient business models of smallholder farmers in East and Southern Africa. During a visit to a dairy farm, milk bulking group (MBG) and processing plant in Malawi in 2018, <a href="" rel="noopener" target="_blank">Francis Jiva</a> and <a href="" rel="noopener" target="_blank">Rob Lubberink</a> were introduced to some of the challenges in dairy production, from farm to fridge, and set out to better understand the context in which OSMARE research will take place over the next 3 years.</p> <h4>Background</h4> <p>OSMARE draws on the agribusiness models supported by Vuna – a 3-year Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) programme, funded by UK-Aid and implemented by Adam Smith International in 5 countries in East and Southern Africa.</p> <p>Vuna piloted a <a href="" rel="noopener" target="_blank">CSA-dairy project</a>, working in 10 districts in Malawi, which sought to support dairy farming by addressing impacts of Climate Change. The Vuna project trained farmers on CSA practices and techniques and introduced technologies that address the issues of adaptation to and mitigation of climate change impacts, while addressing the dairy farmer’s business. OSMARE also considers if this intervention has strengthened the business of dairy farmers.</p> <p style="text-align: center;"><a data-rel="lightbox-image-0" data-rl_caption="" data-rl_title="" href="" title=""><img alt="" class="aligncenter wp-image-20930 size-large" height="683" src="" width="1024" /></a></p> <p style="text-align: center;"><em>A smallholder dairy farmer part of the CSA Dairy project ran by Vuna in 2017-2018 milks his cow in the afternoon and prepares to take the milk to the milk bulking group.</em></p> <h4>Challenges for the dairy farmer</h4> <p><strong>Hygiene and Quality</strong></p> <p>OSMARE met with Sarah<a class="simple-footnote" href="#2" id="return-note-20927-2" title="Name of smallholder farmer changed for privacy."><sup>2</sup></a>, a dairy farmer in Linthipe, one hour’s drive south of Lilongwe, Malawi. As a smallholder, she has 2 dairy cows that produce on average between 10-20 litres per cow per day and she grows legume seed – a typical combination of farming value chains in the region. But, as is the case with several other smallholder farmers, she faces challenges: maximising profit while maintaining milk quality, continuing milk sales through formal markets not informal side-selling, managing a household and adapting to the changing climate as she requires good quality feed for her cows.</p> <p>As a dairy farmer selling to the formal market, her first challenge is hygiene and passing the MBG’s test for additives, adulteration and bacteria particles per millilitre. She explains that when selling to the formal market (the MBG), tests are performed on the milk at the bulking station. If she gets a positive result on all the tests, the milk is accepted, and she would receive payment. Additionally, she is able to receive a premium for the milk if it reaches a high quality. However, if the result indicates adulteration (i.e. a high quantity of water) or additives (i.e. baking soda) or if she fails the alcohol test (i.e. as a result of microbes in the milking container), the milk is rejected.</p> <p>Sarah milks in the morning and evening and she normally combines the milk from the previous evening with the fresh morning milk. While it may affect the quality, she has little choice:</p> <ul> <li>she wants to produce a large quantity of milk, in the shortest time, with little harm to the cow. To do this, she undertakes 2 milking sessions;</li> <li>the MBG closes at a certain time of the day which means she can only take the milk to the MBG after the morning’s session. As some of the farmers travel some distance by foot or bicycle to the MBG, the milk is often exposed to the sun. If they travel too long after the milking process, this could result in compromising milk quality and further losses.</li> </ul> <p>For Sarah, having introduced simple practices of washing hands, cleaning the cow’s udder, being aware of the cleanliness of the cow’s environment and using sanitised buckets or jugs, were key to hedge against some of the risk-factors compromising milk quality. The simple act of washing hands could be the difference between profit and loss.</p> <p>But this might not always be the case. Hygiene seems to be a bigger factor when selling to the MBG, than it is when selling at the local market. Based on anecdotal evidence, when a buyer is in need of milk and has little money, they will buy directly from the nearest dairy farmer, in quantities they can afford and in containers they have available.</p> <p><a data-rel="lightbox-image-1" data-rl_caption="" data-rl_title="" href="" title=""><img alt="" class="aligncenter wp-image-20931 size-large" height="683" src="" width="1024" /></a></p> <p style="text-align: center;"><em>An employee at the Milk Bulking Group administers an alcohol test: milk brought by the farmer is drawn from the container into the silver filter, mixed with alcohol and poured on a petri dish.</em></p> <p><strong>Continue reading the article <a href="">here</a>.</strong></p> <hr /> <div class="simple-footnotes"> <h4 class="notes">Footnotes</h4> <p class="notes"><a name="1">1</a>. OSMARE (Understanding and Scaling Organisational Structures for Smallholder Resilience) is a 3-year research project funded by NWO and research is undertaken by Wageningen University, Vuna, Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Zimbabwe Super Seeds and CCAFS.</p> <p class="notes"><a name="2">2</a>. Name of smallholder farmer changed for privacy.</p> </div><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/> What’s good for business is good for forests in Indonesia Forests, Trees and Agroforestry urn:uuid:ad0c32e5-5324-d913-69be-6d0821113652 Thu, 21 Mar 2019 05:23:31 +0000 <p><p>Scientists in Indonesia are demonstrating how better business opportunities for local communities can help foster and reinforce sustainable forest management. As the world marks International Day of Forests on March 21, the benefits of reforestation and forest restoration are rightly lauded. In success stories of the past, local communities have often been cast as the [&#8230;]</p> <p>The post <a rel="nofollow" href="">What’s good for business is good for forests in Indonesia</a> appeared first on <a rel="nofollow" href="">Forests, Trees and Agroforestry</a>.</p> </p> <p><figure id="attachment_69399" style="width: 300px" class="wp-caption alignleft"><img class="size-medium wp-image-69399" src="" alt="" width="300" height="200" /><figcaption class="wp-caption-text">A community member hold a tree product as part of the Kanoppi project in East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Photo by A. Sanjaya/CIFOR</figcaption></figure></p> <p class="p3"><b><i>Scientists in Indonesia are demonstrating how better business opportunities for local communities can help foster and reinforce sustainable forest management. </i></b></p> <p class="p3">As the world marks International Day of Forests on March 21, the benefits of reforestation and forest restoration are rightly lauded. In success stories of the past, local communities have often been cast as the heroes of sustainable forestry, while private sector businesses have been portrayed as villains. But what if that’s not the whole story?</p> <p class="p3">The <a href="">Kanoppi project</a>, which launched in 2013 and has now entered its second phase, concentrates on the expansion of market-based agroforestry and the development of integrated landscape management in the poorest provinces of eastern Indonesia and the country’s most densely-populated island of Java.</p> <p class="p3">The project, which is part of the CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry (FTA), is funded by the <a href=""><span class="s1">Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research</span></a> (ACIAR) and led by scientists from the <a href="">World Agroforestry</a> <span class="s2">(ICRAF), <a href="">Center for International Forestry Research</a> (CIFOR), </span>the Research, Development and Innovation Agency (FOERDIA) of the Indonesian Ministry of Environment and Forestry and Murdoch University in collaboration with other project partners.</p> <p class="p1"><strong>Read also:</strong> <a href="">New children’s book teaches the sustainable traditions of West Timorese honey hunters</a></p> <p class="p3"><b>Missing link</b></p> <p class="p3">For many generations, communities living in Indonesia have relied on forests to supplement the food and income they reap from farming. Yet, despite the riches of the forests, poverty is still widespread. Some rural households living in the Kanoppi project’s pilot sites in eastern Indonesia earn around US$210 a year.</p> <p class="p3">Part of the challenge is a lack of integration and linkages between community groups producing timber and non-timber forest products (NTFP) and the private sector. Conflicting, confusing and changeable public policies also do not help.</p> <p class="p3">“For example, some communities will plant small teak plantations as a kind of savings account, but most don’t know how to get the permits required to harvest and transport the timber,” explained Ani Adiwinata Nawir, policy scientist with CIFOR. “This means that communities do not harvest as much teak as they could and that they can’t convert their timber into cash when needed.”</p> <p class="p3">Strengthening value chains has become a key focus for Kanoppi, so that farmers can capture more value from their agroforestry production. This, however, requires sustained efforts at multiple levels, including promoting better practices on the ground to increase productivity and profitability, developing markets and private sector engagement, and facilitating supportive policies and institutions.</p> <p><figure id="attachment_69400" style="width: 300px" class="wp-caption alignright"><img class="size-medium wp-image-69400" src="" alt="" width="300" height="199" /><figcaption class="wp-caption-text">People work together in a paddy in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Photo by A. Erlangga/CIFOR</figcaption></figure></p> <p class="p3"><b>Protecting the forest</b></p> <p class="p3"><span class="s2">One example</span> of how to turn traditional community practices into a successful business venture comes from the Mount Mutis Nature Reserve in West Timor. Here, communities come together every year to <a href="">harvest wild forest honey</a>. The task is dangerous – men scale trees of up to 80 meters to collect the honey by hand – but it is also sustainable because it does not require cutting down trees.</p> <p class="p3">The honey supplements local diets, and there is enough left over to sell. In fact, as much as 30 tons of wild honey is produced and harvested in Mt. Mutis annually, accounting for 25 percent of total production in the province. Working collaboratively with WWF Indonesia – which is one of the project’s NGO partners along with others like Threads of Life – Kanoppi has helped brand and package the honey, which is now sold as “Mt. Mutis honey” and sold to neighboring islands.</p> <p class="p3">Similarly on Sumbawa island, this commercial success is good news for communities and for the forest: Because the continued honey production hinges on a healthy ecosystem, people have a strong economic incentive to preserve and protect the forest.</p> <p class="p3">That’s the underlying logic of the whole project. When communities can successfully market and sell sustainable products, their incentive to continue sustainable forestry practices grows, which in turn increases productivity, profitability and incomes.</p> <p class="p3">“We want to reinforce this virtuous cycle where business opportunities foster sustainable forestry,” said Aulia Perdana, a marketing specialist with ICRAF. “That’s why we try to involve the private sector – for example in the village learning centers we’ve established in project sites – so that communities can better connect with the market.”</p> <p class="p3">Other efforts to promote sustainable and profitable agroforestry production include using voluntary extensionists, meaning that the people who first adopt a new technology help spread those innovations to other members of the community. Eleven on-farm demonstration trials have already been established, and 40 more are planned for 2019. Kanoppi has also published manuals, journal articles, videos and a <a href="">picture book</a> to promote its methodology.</p> <p class="p1"><strong>Read the picture book:</strong> <a href="">Secrets of the Mutis Honey Hunters</a></p> <p class="p3"><b>Landscape perspective</b></p> <p class="p3">Given the project’s success with marketing the sustainably produced honey from Mt. Mutis, the local district administration has adapted its strategy on integrated landscape-level management of NTFP to give greater weight to communities’ customary practices. This is an important first step toward establishing policy support elsewhere in the country.</p> <p><figure id="attachment_69403" style="width: 300px" class="wp-caption alignleft"><img class="size-medium wp-image-69403" src="" alt="" width="300" height="200" /><figcaption class="wp-caption-text">Honeycomb drains through a nylon filter in Indonesia. Photo by S. Purnama Sarie/ICRAF</figcaption></figure></p> <p class="p3">One challenge has been that past planning and policies have separately focused on different sectors, such as small farms in forestry and target-oriented cash crop production led by other sectors – not considering opportunities for synergies or problematic overlaps. Kanoppi has departed from that approach.</p> <p class="p3">“We talk about integrated landscape management, which essentially is about harmonizing the different land uses along the watershed from upstream to downstream, so that farms, plantations, forests and many other kinds of activities coexist and reinforce each other,” said Ani.</p> <p class="p3">“The landscape perspective helps everyone – communities, businesses and authorities – see what kind of production fits where in the landscape, in ways that are both profitable and sustainable.”</p> <p class="p3">Kanoppi is a clear example of how combining the expertise and experience of CIFOR and ICRAF scientists makes for a strong response to development and sustainability challenges in forested landscapes – among the many reasons why the two institutions <span class="s2">recently announced a merger</span>.</p> <p class="p3">In Indonesia, Ani, Perdana and their colleagues will continue their work to develop inclusive, sustainable business models that generate a fair return – specifically focusing on scaling-up the adoption of improved production practices and value chains to benefit smallholder livelihoods through landscape-scale management of the farm-forest interface – for communities and for forests.</p> <p class="p3"><i>By <a href="">Marianne Gadeberg</a></i><i>, communications specialist.</i></p> <hr /> <p class="p3"><i>This research is part of the CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry (FTA). FTA is the world’s largest research for development program to enhance the role of forests, trees and agroforestry in sustainable development and food security and to address climate change. CIFOR leads FTA in partnership with Bioversity International, CATIE, CIRAD, INBAR, ICRAF and TBI. FTA’s work is supported by the <a href="">CGIAR Trust Fund</a></i><i>.</i></p> <p>The post <a rel="nofollow" href="">What’s good for business is good for forests in Indonesia</a> appeared first on <a rel="nofollow" href="">Forests, Trees and Agroforestry</a>.</p> Isabelle Baltenweck: an agricultural economist passionate about making the world a better place for women and men in livestock CGIAR Research Program on Livestock urn:uuid:dac25279-36b7-aca5-46b4-9279665a367f Mon, 11 Feb 2019 06:46:23 +0000 The CGIAR Research Program on Livestock recently announced with pleasure the appointment of Dr. Isabelle Baltenweck as its new flagship leader for Livestock, Livelihoods and Agro-food Systems (LLAFS). Originally from France, Isabelle brings to the role close to 20 years of post-doctoral experience in smallholder value chains in Africa, South and South-East Asia, with a &#8230; <span class="more-link"><a href="">Continue reading <span class="meta-nav">&#8594;</span></a></span> <p><img data-attachment-id="1102" data-permalink="" data-orig-file="" data-orig-size="5605,3741" data-comments-opened="1" data-image-meta="{&quot;aperture&quot;:&quot;11&quot;,&quot;credit&quot;:&quot;ILRI&quot;,&quot;camera&quot;:&quot;NIKON D810&quot;,&quot;caption&quot;:&quot;&quot;,&quot;created_timestamp&quot;:&quot;1549531727&quot;,&quot;copyright&quot;:&quot;&quot;,&quot;focal_length&quot;:&quot;110&quot;,&quot;iso&quot;:&quot;1600&quot;,&quot;shutter_speed&quot;:&quot;0.002&quot;,&quot;title&quot;:&quot;&quot;,&quot;orientation&quot;:&quot;1&quot;}" data-image-title="Livestock_CRP_IsabelleBaltenweck_ageconomist_edit" data-image-description="" data-medium-file="" data-large-file="" class="alignnone size-full wp-image-1102" src="" alt="Livestock_CRP_IsabelleBaltenweck_ageconomist_edit" srcset=" 610w, 1220w, 150w, 300w, 768w, 1024w" sizes="(max-width: 610px) 100vw, 610px" /></p> <p><em>The CGIAR Research Program on Livestock recently announced with pleasure the appointment of Dr. Isabelle Baltenweck as its new flagship leader for Livestock, Livelihoods and Agro-food Systems (LLAFS). Originally from France, Isabelle brings to the role close to 20 years of post-doctoral experience in </em><em>smallholder value chains in Africa, South and South-East Asia, with a focus on livestock farming. She has played a central role in the flagship </em><em>through its different iterations, first as the Livestock &amp; Fish CRP and in its current form, as the Livestock CRP. </em></p> <p><em> </em><em>On International Women and Girl’s in Science day, we celebrate Isabelle’s contributions as an agricultural economist with ILRI for 19 years, while looking ahead to her new role that she is inheriting from Dr. Steve Staal, where she will draw upon her varied areas of expertise in farm level economics, value chains, gender, livelihoods and systems approach.</em></p> <p><em>Here Isabelle shares with us her vision for the LLAFS flagship and talks about what motivates her most.</em></p> <h3><span style="color:#c24d2e;"><strong>WITH 3 YEARS LEFT ON THE CLOCK, WHAT OPPORTUNITIES DO YOU SEE FOR THE FLAGSHIP AND THE LIVESTOCK CRP AS A WHOLE?</strong></span></h3> <p>Quite a lot of work has been accomplished in the first phase of the CRP as Livestock and Fish, and now two years into the current phase, we have a real chance now to consolidate research outputs in order to generate some solid international public goods, through applying lessons learned from our cross country and cross commodity experiences.</p> <p>We are able now to formulate fewer and more focused research questions – including whether livestock can really help move farming communities onto the path towards gender equity. We are also in a position to concretely inform the debate on how and why it is important to invest in livestock value chains, for which types of benefits, and at various levels – i.e. farm, value chain and country.</p> <h3><span style="color:#c24d2e;"><strong>WHAT DO YOU BRING TO THE FLAGSHIP LEADERSHIP POSITION? </strong></span></h3> <p>I believe in inter-disciplinary work, and for me this is what the Livestock CRP is all about – harnessing the expertise of different people. I enjoy working with people from different disciplines and being challenged. I also know livestock systems well, especially dairy.</p> <p>Mostly, I want to ensure is that our research answers important questions, not just the ones from donors, but especially those from the livestock communities and stakeholders that we serve.</p> <p>We need to be looking at how the research conducted in different countries are answering the CRP’s research questions, helping us to identify innovations that can have the most impact. For example, what are better ways for farmers to access the needed inputs and services – those that enable value chain actors to be more profitable and improve their livelihoods. We need to provide evidence on various options so that people–from an animal health provider, a woman livestock trader, to an extension or ministry person–can make an informed choice, taking into account trade-offs.</p> <h3><span style="color:#c24d2e;"><strong>WHAT DREW YOU TOWARDS WORKING AS AN AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIST IN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH FOR DEVELOPMENT?</strong></span></h3> <p>I believe scientists, including economists, have a responsibility to make the world a better place.</p> <p>I could have been a farmer (though I’m way too risk averse) or a development practitioner (but I spend too much time considering different options), so I ended up in research. Economics is about looking at options and trade-offs, and this approach allows us to better understand decision making and processes.</p> <h3><strong><span style="color:#c24d2e;">COULD YOU DESCRIBE SOME OF YOUR PROFESSIONAL HIGHLIGHTS?</span></strong></h3> <p>I would say the contribution I made to the Heifer-led <a href="">East Africa Dairy Development</a> project. ILRI was the research partner and I contributed to the design and implementation of this multi-country, multi-partner project. Being able to influence the design of the 2<sup>nd</sup> phase was a great achievement, moving it away from a “one-size-fits-all” hub model to a flexible hub approach.</p> <p>I also take great pride in seeing my various staff and students increase their capacity – capacity strengthening is a big part of what I do (not only formal training).</p> <h3><span style="color:#c24d2e;"><strong>WHAT GETS YOU UP IN THE MORNING?</strong> </span></h3> <p>It would have to be working with great colleagues, and knowing that I will learn something new (almost) every day.</p>