Science News Science News Respective post owners and feed distributors Tue, 22 Jan 2013 09:53:08 -0600 Feed Informer Decline of diatoms due to ocean acidification ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:385ceada-e855-19b9-e196-99bf0440ebf6 Wed, 25 May 2022 17:26:19 -0500 Diatoms are the most important producers of plant biomass in the ocean and help to transport carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere into the deep ocean and thus regulate our climate. Because diatoms rely on silica rather than calcium carbonate to build their shells, they were previously thought to benefit from ocean acidification -- a chemical change in seawater triggered by the increasing uptake of CO2 that makes calcification more difficult. Scientists now show that diatoms, which are a type of plankton, are also affected. Analyses of data from field experiments and model simulations suggest that ocean acidification could drastically reduce diatom populations. Researchers identify biomarker panel that could help predict gestational diabetes in early pregnancy ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:e8e5733a-165e-ff47-7a43-6684f217d346 Wed, 25 May 2022 17:26:16 -0500 Researchers have taken the initial step in identifying what may be an effective way to detect gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) earlier in pregnancy, potentially improving diagnosis and treatment for what is the most common disorder of pregnancy. Seven healthy habits linked to lower risk of dementia in those with genetic risk ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:2e40aa83-19b4-ec27-9f3f-90da13d1c1a0 Wed, 25 May 2022 15:38:21 -0500 Seven healthy habits and lifestyle factors may play a role in lowering the risk of dementia in people with the highest genetic risk, according to new research. Researchers use CRISPR technology to modify starches in potatoes ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:2097c617-c418-f757-bd71-6c71a963345f Wed, 25 May 2022 15:37:57 -0500 Humble potatoes are a rich source not only of dietary carbohydrates for humans, but also of starches for numerous industrial applications. Scientists are learning how to alter the ratio of potatoes' two starch molecules -- amylose and amylopectin -- to increase both culinary and industrial applications. Missing link between Alzheimer's and vascular disease found? ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:46afef2d-91de-8202-5cad-e3b35f87ecc6 Wed, 25 May 2022 15:37:46 -0500 A gene called FMNL2 may explain why people with hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, or obesity have a greater risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Common prostate cancer medications may be less safe than previously thought ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:d16fc246-e42c-f3e8-8d5e-660aaf18af1e Wed, 25 May 2022 14:17:50 -0500 Men taking either of the two most common oral medications for advanced prostate cancer who had also undergone hormone therapy to treat their disease were at higher risk of serious metabolic or cardiovascular issues than patients who were only receiving hormone therapy, researchers found. Bat brains organized for echolocation and flight ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:8737ff47-fd8e-b8e4-1aae-97683b5cf7c8 Wed, 25 May 2022 14:17:47 -0500 A new study shows how the brains of Egyptian fruit bats are highly specialized for echolocation and flight, with motor areas of the cerebral cortex that are dedicated to sonar production and wing control. Tiny robotic crab is smallest-ever remote-controlled walking robot ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:fa984ef1-d8b9-2859-34b1-48a0640c8150 Wed, 25 May 2022 14:17:41 -0500 Engineers have developed the smallest-ever remote-controlled walking robot -- and it comes in the form of a tiny, adorable peekytoe crab. Just a half-millimeter wide, the tiny crabs can bend, twist, crawl, walk, turn and even jump. Although the research is exploratory at this point, the researchers believe their technology might bring the field closer to realizing micro-sized robots that can perform practical tasks inside tightly confined spaces. Secrets of thymus formation revealed ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:e737f3f7-ff4c-201d-d853-96564fb955ec Wed, 25 May 2022 12:12:09 -0500 Scientists have identified processes that control the development and composition of thymic tissue throughout life. Specifically, they were able to show that a certain growth factor can maintain progenitor cells even in the aging thymus and thus counteract the age-related shrinkage of the organ and the reduction in the number of powerful immune cells. The results provide new avenues for therapeutic approaches to autoimmune diseases. Artificial cilia could someday power diagnostic devices ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:b768af4f-c5a6-e746-9a4c-5b92ea9cccf0 Wed, 25 May 2022 12:12:06 -0500 Researchers have now designed a micro-sized artificial cilial system using platinum-based components that can control the movement of fluids at such a scale. The technology could someday enable low-cost, portable diagnostic devices for testing blood samples, manipulating cells or assisting in microfabrication processes. Physicist uses intuition, supercomputers to identify new high-temperature superconductor ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:7c8052a0-72f8-250f-13c7-1380507d7884 Wed, 25 May 2022 12:12:00 -0500 In 2021, scientists discovered a new form of superconducting nickelate using computational methods. The discovery lets researchers explore similarities and differences between nickelates and cuprates -- promising copper-based materials -- and among nickelates. Both families of materials appear to display 'super-exchange,' where the material trades electrons in copper or nickel atoms through a pathway that contains oxygen, rather than directly. This, researchers believe, may be one of the factors that governs superconductivity. Study reveals cause, potential precision therapies for aggressive type of lymphoma ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:4d4887aa-55ef-d0ce-d1ea-7cab23e9a4f8 Wed, 25 May 2022 12:11:58 -0500 DNA mutations are essential to the rapid development of an array of antibody-producing immune cells called B cells that collectively can recognize a vast number of specific targets. But this process can go awry in people with a mutation in a gene called SETD2, leading to a type of aggressive blood cancer, according to a new study. Researchers teleport quantum information across rudimentary quantum network ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:25861956-7f15-162a-6638-d1d2ffa8226e Wed, 25 May 2022 12:11:56 -0500 Researchers have succeeded in teleporting quantum information across a rudimentary network. This first of its kind is an important step towards a future quantum Internet. This breakthrough was made possible by a greatly improved quantum memory and enhanced quality of the quantum links between the three nodes of the network. Archaeologists reveal pre-Hispanic cities in Bolivia with laser technology ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:4a1d3d5a-8ca1-2aee-7bb0-abb870ba8e3b Wed, 25 May 2022 10:09:24 -0500 Several hundred settlements from the time between 500 and 1400 AD lie in the Bolivian Llanos de Mojos savannah and have fascinated archaeologists for years. Researchers have now visualized the dimensions of the largest known settlement of the so-called Casarabe culture. Mapping with the laser technology LIDAR indicates that it is an early urbanism with a low population density -- the only known case so far from the Amazon lowlands. The results shed new light on how globally widespread and diverse early urban life was and how earlier societies lived in the Amazon. Scientists identify how the brain links memories ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:bbd01315-4c08-d926-9a98-ca56624f7dda Wed, 25 May 2022 10:09:20 -0500 Our brains lose the ability to link related memories as we age. Scientists genetically restored this brain function in middle-aged mice and identified an FDA-approved drug that achieves the same thing.  The study suggests a new approach for combating middle-aged memory loss and a possible early intervention for dementia. Roboticists go off road to compile data that could train self-driving ATVs ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:75c6caaa-1a1f-a8ac-00d3-f1a055421c1e Wed, 25 May 2022 10:09:13 -0500 Researchers took an all-terrain vehicle on wild rides through tall grass, loose gravel and mud to gather data about how the ATV interacted with a challenging, off-road environment. They drove the heavily instrumented ATV aggressively at speeds up to 30 miles an hour. They slid through turns, took it up and down hills, and even got it stuck in the mud -- all while gathering data such as video, the speed of each wheel and the amount of suspension shock travel from seven types of sensors. Climate change reveals unique artifacts in melting ice patches ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:eec99d9b-4e02-1762-e422-99d5cf064db7 Wed, 25 May 2022 10:09:10 -0500 Norwegian mountains are full of time capsules. Thousands of years of human and ecological history are preserved in remnant patches of ice. Now this treasure trove of information threatens to melt away, unless we take action. High air pollution from fracking in Ohio county ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:e2af2bb2-9baa-bce6-63e7-7eacfa30a0ac Wed, 25 May 2022 10:09:05 -0500 Residents of Belmont County in eastern Ohio have long suffered from health problems they suspected were the result of air pollution from fracking facilities, but regulators dismissed and downplayed their concerns. With technical assistance from volunteer scientists, local advocacy groups set up their own network of low-cost sensors. They found that the region's three EPA sensors were not providing an accurate picture: The sensors revealed concerning levels of air pollution, and correlations between local spikes and health impacts. Silicone wristbands track firefighters' exposures to harmful chemicals ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:7609d30b-ae13-bdc8-9685-84a20b15af61 Wed, 25 May 2022 10:09:02 -0500 Researchers have used silicone wristbands to track firefighters' exposures to 134 potentially carcinogenic chemicals. Analysis of the chemicals absorbed by the wristbands over a six-day shift show that while some exposures are linked to being at the scene of a fire, others aren't. This suggests that just being a firefighter means you are exposed to more of these compounds than the average adult, regardless of whether you respond to a fire. Longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding has protective effect on childhood asthma ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:f44d6077-0d70-bd85-3300-106474eb9fb3 Wed, 25 May 2022 10:08:57 -0500 A new study shows that a longer period of exclusive breastfeeding was associated with decreased odds of current asthma. Chemists' HAT trick for greener chemical synthesis ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:b9483cd7-16f3-4624-473c-931ce4d16eda Wed, 25 May 2022 10:08:49 -0500 A technique used in chemical synthesis is called hydrogen atom transfer, or HAT. It's a potentially powerful and versatile chemical tool, but technical constraints have limited its use. Now chemists have borrowed a technique from the chemistry of energy storage to accomplish HAT with fewer chemicals and less cost. Hot-blooded T. rex and cold-blooded Stegosaurus: Chemical clues reveal dinosaur metabolisms ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:b7d9eedb-c06e-7ff7-78fe-fe15a47ea598 Wed, 25 May 2022 10:08:46 -0500 There's a new method for determining whether dinosaurs were hot- or cold-blooded, using clues in their bones that indicated how much the individual animals breathed in their last hour of life. The study shows that the bird-hipped dinosaurs like T. rex and Brachiosaurus were hot-blooded, while the lizard-hipped dinosaurs like Triceratops and Stegosaurus were cold-blooded. Genetic roots of 3 mitochondrial diseases ID'd via new approach ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:02001d95-1eb1-4080-af57-20987fdec165 Wed, 25 May 2022 10:08:43 -0500 Researchers have identified the genetic causes of three mitochondrial diseases by figuring out what dozens of poorly understood mitochondrial proteins do. The functions of hundreds more mitochondrial proteins remain unknown, indicating that this approach could be a promising path to finding better ways to diagnose and treat the bewildering array of conditions linked to malfunctioning mitochondria. Mice choose best escape route without ever experiencing threat ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:6d73e9a4-96da-c334-2e58-5a8abc72493d Wed, 25 May 2022 10:08:41 -0500 Escaping imminent danger is essential for survival. Animals must learn a new environment fast enough for them to be able to choose the shortest route to safety. But how do they do this without ever having experienced threat in the new environment? Novel environmental DNA monitoring method for identifying rare and endangered fish species sold in Hong Kong wet markets ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:ea82b2a9-ebf9-c191-1b6a-8e865c973ce9 Wed, 25 May 2022 09:29:55 -0500 Researchers have outlined a powerful new tool for monitoring trade of rare and endangered fish species in Hong Kong wet markets. Using environmental DNA (eDNA) present in the drain runoff water of fish markets, researchers were able to extract and sequence enough DNA to identify over 100 species of fish that had passed through the market. New discovery about distant galaxies: Stars are more massive than we thought ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:17825639-9332-7b61-6eba-84e88e5d4866 Wed, 25 May 2022 09:29:52 -0500 A team of astrophysicists has arrived at a major result regarding star populations beyond the Milky Way. The result could change our understanding of a wide range of astronomical phenomena, including the formation of black holes, supernovae and why galaxies die. Astrophysics student discovers link between global warming and locally unstable weather ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:8dc5e604-c4cd-b2d5-7e10-2982a419202a Wed, 25 May 2022 09:29:49 -0500 Climate change gives rise to more unstable weather, local droughts and extreme temperature records, but a coherent theory relating local and global climate is still under active development. Now an astrophysics student has used a mathematical approach -- inspired by research in the Universe's light -- to unveil how global temperature increase engenders locally unstable weather on Earth. Wake up and smell the burning rubbish? Secrets of disordered smell found ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:6e54b8ac-e6a9-61a8-e4f2-70da53763845 Wed, 25 May 2022 09:29:46 -0500 Researchers have discovered the secrets of why certain food and drinks smell (and likely taste) disgusting to people with parosmia. Secure communication with light particles ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:f85600a5-691d-1246-e868-389b1592f785 Wed, 25 May 2022 09:29:40 -0500 While quantum computers offer many novel possibilities, they also pose a threat to internet security since these supercomputers make common encryption methods vulnerable. Based on the so-called quantum key distribution, researchers have developed a new, tap-proof communication network. First Australians ate giant eggs of huge flightless birds, ancient proteins confirm ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:10d3f5f1-5141-35b9-80c0-fc8ff7335a85 Wed, 25 May 2022 09:29:37 -0500 Scientists settle debate surrounding species that laid eggs exploited by early Australian people around 50,000 years ago. Shell proteins point to Genyornis, which was among the 'mega-fauna' to go extinct a few thousand years after humans arrived on the continent. Epigenetic markers predict complications in patients with type 2 diabetes ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:f68d585d-6baa-07ce-1f17-59b09d9b6b42 Wed, 25 May 2022 09:29:34 -0500 A new study supports the notion that patients with type 2 diabetes patient should be divided into subgroups and given individualized treatment. The study demonstrates that there are distinct epigenetic differences between different groups of patients with type 2 diabetes. The epigenetic markers are also associated with different risks of developing common complications in type 2 diabetes, such as stroke, heart attack and kidney disease. Secrets of tree hyraxes in Kenya uncovered with new research techniques ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:bb834913-ae7e-6e7d-7073-540e2013ea52 Wed, 25 May 2022 09:29:32 -0500 In addition to audio recordings and laser scanning, a thermal imaging camera has been adopted for use in research focused on threatened mammals that hide from poachers in Kenya's Taita Hills. When male buddies become less important than female mating partners ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:f2d08ec1-3d18-6dd1-09d3-34b31914a6a5 Wed, 25 May 2022 09:29:29 -0500 Close friendships among males are rare in the animal kingdom, as males usually compete for rank and access to females. However, male friendships can also be beneficial for male reproduction, as friends can provide support in climbing the rank ladder or defending females from other males. Scientists have now investigated the benefits of male friendships in wild Guinea baboons in Senegal. Researchers develop new biobattery for hydrogen storage ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:2390ddcf-e7c0-3715-4925-330f0901a68e Wed, 25 May 2022 09:29:26 -0500 A team of microbiologists has succeeded in using bacteria for the controlled storage and release of hydrogen. This is an important step in the search for carbon-neutral energy sources in the interest of climate protection. New research on tidal flats is 'wake up call' for US coastal communities ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:d0d28eeb-698b-fc47-88e6-76d7331e0973 Wed, 25 May 2022 09:29:21 -0500 About 41 million people in live in U.S. Atlantic coastline counties. There isn't an effective way to identify the impact of urban growth on tidal flats -- the guardians of beachfront communities. Researchers have developed a new way to quantify these impacts from a geographic lens focused on place and space using data over three decades. Analyzing the annual dynamics of three highly urbanized coastal counties in the southeastern U.S., results show that tidal flats in these three counties urgently need a sustainable plan of management in response to the rapid expansion of urban areas. Importantly, their new technique can be revised and applied to the entire U.S. as research now is limited to individual cities. Type 2 diabetes accelerates brain aging and cognitive decline ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:55b1accd-924d-4698-f277-1dc0597f670b Wed, 25 May 2022 07:05:27 -0500 Scientists have demonstrated that normal brain aging is accelerated by approximately 26% in people with progressive type 2 diabetes compared with individuals without the disease, reports a new study. Scientists build subcellular map of entire brain networks ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:53a6f9c6-935d-efd4-1b55-f9beab42c404 Wed, 25 May 2022 07:05:24 -0500 Researchers have developed an imaging technique to capture information about the structure and function of brain tissue at subcellular level -- a few billionth of a meter, while also capturing information about the surrounding environment. The unique approach, overcomes the challenges of imaging tissues at different scales, allowing scientists to see the surrounding cells and how they function, so they can build a complete picture of neural networks in the brain. Some nomadic birds look for social cues to stop migrating ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:93f974f1-f3cf-48f5-af71-957e1f3c1f86 Wed, 25 May 2022 07:05:19 -0500 A study of nomadic pine siskins, a type of finch often seen on backyard feeders, found that when male migratory siskins were paired with a settled male bird in captivity, they started exhibiting signs of ending migration too. They stopped restless flying and lost body mass, fat stores and muscle size, compared to a control group placed in solo enclosures. The apparent reliance on social cues for the end of migration has implications for other nomadic animals as well. AI can predict cancer risk of lung nodules ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:e0d92515-b741-0fba-cb76-62fc6e59ea25 Wed, 25 May 2022 07:05:12 -0500 An artificial intelligence (AI) tool helps doctors predict the cancer risk in lung nodules seen on CT, according to a new study. Nearly 108,000 overdose deaths in US in 2021 ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:ed1e07bf-ceaf-7b39-a444-e0abb31a3354 Wed, 25 May 2022 07:05:09 -0500 A grim prediction made half a decade ago by epidemiologists and modelers has come true: More than 100,000 people are now dying from drug overdoses annually in the U.S. The road to success when it comes to mitigating flood disasters ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:e221efe4-1ae9-71dc-d25a-9ac4c9470376 Wed, 25 May 2022 07:04:55 -0500 As Australia continues to mop up after one of the wettest years on record, councils might want to consider a new flood mitigation strategy -- permeable pavements to suit specific soil and rainfall conditions. Highest Efficiency 1-Sun Solar Cell ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:932f8449-4ee0-4a20-0777-811cfa744e5c Tue, 24 May 2022 16:12:11 -0500 Researchers have created a solar cell with a record 39.5% efficiency under 1-sun global illumination. This is believed to be the highest efficiency solar cell of any type, measured using standard 1-sun conditions. Highest efficiency 1-sun solar cell ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:c10d4008-262e-8b09-ab08-ce3e5c50b5cc Tue, 24 May 2022 16:12:11 -0500 Researchers have created a solar cell with a record 39.5% efficiency under 1-sun global illumination. This is believed to be the highest efficiency solar cell of any type, measured using standard 1-sun conditions. Researchers create highest efficiency 1-sun solar cell ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:88113d9f-0532-6086-f37a-142f2b764c56 Tue, 24 May 2022 16:12:11 -0500 Researchers have created a solar cell with a record 39.5 percent efficiency under 1-sun global illumination. This is believed to be the highest efficiency solar cell of any type, measured using standard 1-sun conditions. New gene identified in arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:1513f856-094d-9f91-97aa-cac3387f04e8 Tue, 24 May 2022 15:36:31 -0500 Researchers have used advanced sequencing technology to better understand the heart disease arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, in which heart muscle tissue is replaced by fat cells. Using explanted human hearts, they found regions in which heart muscle was actively degenerated and identified a new gene, ZBTB11, that drives heart muscle cell degradation. A good defect? Researchers discover helicoidal screw dislocations in layered polymers ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:58fd5462-1d08-400e-e8fc-307f69714541 Tue, 24 May 2022 15:36:28 -0500 Researchers recently discovered a helicoidal-shaped defect in layered polymers, uncovering how solvents can diffuse through layers and produce color changes. Experts forecast the wind plant of the future to be taller and more economical ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:6079b3fb-7cfd-656c-a34e-ecfe7351aae5 Tue, 24 May 2022 15:36:23 -0500 Anticipating key features of wind plants a decade or more ahead of their installation can inform today's investment, research, and energy system planning decisions. Researchers elicited opinions from more than 140 of the world's leading experts about their expectations of future wind plant design in 2035. Hubble reaches new milestone in mystery of universe's expansion rate ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:b2425b2a-fbc1-17b3-1dcd-4dbcd31b2200 Tue, 24 May 2022 15:00:11 -0500 NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has calibrated more than 40 'milepost markers' of space and time to help scientists precisely measure the expansion rate of the universe -- a quest with a plot twist. Scientists discover gene plays critical role in embryo development ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:397d67a6-b7ac-04aa-0fff-973ec99f1630 Tue, 24 May 2022 14:49:09 -0500 Developing drugs that affect the function of the Cnpy4 gene, which is involved in human embryo development, may provide potential new treatment options for diseases, including cancer. AI reveals unsuspected math underlying search for exoplanets ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:f64a4e94-131f-6303-8369-b510d8bd9b9d Tue, 24 May 2022 14:49:01 -0500 The astronomers' goal: find an artificial intelligence algorithm to interpret microlensing events captured by the upcoming Roman Space Telescope and speed detection of exoplanets around other stars. They achieved that, but the AI told them something unexpected and deep: the theory used to infer stellar and exoplanetary masses and orbits from observations was incomplete. Digging into the mathematics, they uncovered a theory that explains all types of microlensing events and possible ambiguities in interpreting them.