Science News Science News Respective post owners and feed distributors Tue, 22 Jan 2013 09:53:08 -0600 Feed Informer New design principles for spin-based quantum materials ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:1d566f55-3b90-5e06-642f-92af0f5931de Fri, 18 Sep 2020 11:22:07 -0500 A new design criteria for enhancing the spin lifetime of a class of quantum materials could support Internet of Things devices and other resource-intensive technologies. Solar storm forecasts for Earth improved with help from the public ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:9743bf33-53f5-0c09-aa1c-fbca9e91b643 Fri, 18 Sep 2020 10:33:50 -0500 Scientists used observations recorded by members of the public to increase accuracy of computer model predictions of when harmful CMEs will hit Earth. Biologists create new genetic systems to neutralize gene drives ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:d567e4ed-fcb9-b97f-a714-743ebc668c4f Fri, 18 Sep 2020 10:33:47 -0500 Addressing concerns about gene drive releases in the wild, scientists have developed two new genetic systems that halt or eliminate gene drives after release. Created in fruit flies, the e-CHACRs and ERACRs are powerful gene drive control mechanisms that were meticulously developed and tested at the genetic and molecular levels. Engineers produce a fisheye lens that's completely flat ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:056521d0-f026-03de-a153-1381375bab72 Fri, 18 Sep 2020 10:33:45 -0500 Engineers have designed a wide-angle lens that is completely flat. It is the first flat fisheye lens to produce crisp, 180-degree panoramic images. Mapping the 1.6 billion people who live near forests ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:68967c47-01db-6aef-0e56-e4593f59bc41 Fri, 18 Sep 2020 10:21:40 -0500 Global maps of places where people and forests coexist show that an estimated 1.6 billion people live within 5 kilometers of a forest. The assessment, based on data from 2000 and 2012, showed that of these 1.6 billion 'forest-proximate people,' 64.5 percent were located in tropical countries, and 71.3 percent lived in countries classified as low or middle income by the World Bank. Raids and bloody rituals among ancient steppe nomads ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:0c674457-cd64-0f40-f587-b0c23c65106a Fri, 18 Sep 2020 09:42:59 -0500 Traces of violence on 1700 year old skeletons allow researchers to reconstruct warfare and sacrifices of nomads in Siberia. An international and interdisciplinary team of anthropologists, archaeologists and specialists in forensic sciences performed a detailed and revealing analysis of the traumas found on the skeletal remains. Glyphosate residue in manure fertilizer decrease strawberry and meadow fescue growth ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:d1fae829-8445-9a7c-9f10-1b14cd9d9062 Fri, 18 Sep 2020 09:42:55 -0500 A new study finds that glyphosate residue from herbicides in manure fertilizer decrease the growth of strawberry and meadow fescue as well as runner production of strawberry. Nose's response to odors more than just a simple sum of parts ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:77c19c07-a17a-3363-5cfe-9937c8175bac Fri, 18 Sep 2020 09:42:52 -0500 Based on highly sensitive recordings of neuron activity in the noses of mice, researchers have found that olfactory sensory neurons can exhibit suppression or enhancement of response when odors are mixed, overturning a long-standing view that the response is a simple sum with more complex processing only happening at later stages. Researchers develop simple method to 3D print milk products ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:4bba7771-9b1a-2c02-e639-e3feffec4ebb Fri, 18 Sep 2020 09:42:50 -0500 Additive free, multimaterial 3D printing is achieved for milk-based products without temperature control. Unverricht-Lundborg disease is more common in Finland than elsewhere in the world ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:89a9c237-42f7-d640-efc0-f35d73e2b01a Fri, 18 Sep 2020 09:42:48 -0500 Based on reported cases, Unverricht-Lundborg disease, also known as progressive myoclonic epilepsy-1A, EPM1, is more common in Finland than anywhere else in the world, a new study finds. Promising computer simulations for stellarator plasmas ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:600d2596-5348-f1bc-77af-f0eb4bf971cb Fri, 18 Sep 2020 09:42:46 -0500 The turbulence code GENE (Gyrokinetic Electromagnetic Numerical Experiment), has proven to be very useful for the theoretical description of turbulence in the plasma of tokamak-type fusion devices. Extended for the more complex geometry of stellarator-type devices, computer simulations with GENE now indicate a new method to reduce plasma turbulence in stellarator plasmas. This could significantly increase the efficiency of a future fusion power plant. How researchers look at the bird brain in action ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:14cd9344-b5ea-7f89-e67e-cb77a1014d35 Fri, 18 Sep 2020 09:42:44 -0500 How do birds make decisions and which brain regions are particularly active when they solve tasks? Researchers are investigating these questions. So far, only anesthetized birds and therefore passive experiments could be examined using the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thus, the examination of brain processes during active tasks was not possible. Now the researchers have constructed an experimental set-up which allows them to carry out fMRI examinations on awake pigeons and thus also investigate cognitive processes for the first time. VLBA makes first direct distance measurement to magnetar ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:e0de6501-b645-9fe6-c305-78f0cfce172b Fri, 18 Sep 2020 09:42:36 -0500 Using the VLBA, astronomers have made the first direct geometric measurement of the distance to a magnetar. This precision measurement to one of the most magnetic objects in the Universe could help scientists determine if such objects are responsible for generating the mysterious Fast Radio Bursts. Mosquito-borne viruses linked to stroke ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:d3b783f2-deac-14a0-414a-ac5d94dba012 Fri, 18 Sep 2020 09:42:35 -0500 A deadly combination of two mosquito-borne viruses may be a trigger for stroke, new research has found. Self-induced ultrafast demagnetization limits the amount of light diffracted from magnetic samples at soft x-ray energies ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:a85102df-9d8d-a8f7-8577-3e8301760006 Fri, 18 Sep 2020 09:42:33 -0500 Free electron X-ray lasers deliver intense ultrashort pulses of x-rays, which can be used to image nanometer-scale objects in a single shot. When the x-ray wavelength is tuned to an electronic resonance, magnetization patterns can be made visible. When using increasingly intense pulses, however, the magnetization image fades away. The mechanism responsible for this loss in resonant magnetic scattering intensity has now been clarified. Mapping the decision-making pathways in the brain ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:6e16bb34-b5ab-1d73-a4ff-7ed5030e0fb8 Fri, 18 Sep 2020 09:42:31 -0500 Scientists have identified a new area of the brain that could be involved in cost-benefit decision-making. Ecologists sound alarm on plastic pollution ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:0c530ab0-07fd-c4bd-d200-5e1ae163ee4e Thu, 17 Sep 2020 17:13:03 -0500 Ecologists examining plastic pollution entering oceans, rivers and lakes around the world annually, outline potential impacts of various mitigation strategies over the coming decade. The researchers estimate the scale of human response needed to reduce future emissions and manage what's already floating around out there and recommend a fundamental shift to a framework based on recycling where end-of-life plastic products are valued rather than becoming waste. A scientific first: How psychedelics bind to key brain cell receptor ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:1fc98301-afb4-8569-0fd5-dfd836494d0d Thu, 17 Sep 2020 17:12:59 -0500 For the first time, scientists solved the high-resolution structure of these compounds when they are actively bound to the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor on the surface of brain cells. This discovery is already leading to the exploration of more precise compounds that could eliminate hallucinations but still have strong therapeutic effects. Psilocybin - the psychedelic compound in mushrooms - has already been granted breakthrough status by the FDA to treat depression. Scientists discover what happens in our brains when we make educated guesses ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:b4ef4d89-5752-88bf-819a-52e13ef03fe9 Thu, 17 Sep 2020 17:12:53 -0500 Researchers have identified how cells in our brains work together to join up memories of separate experiences, allowing us to make educated guesses in everyday life. By studying both human and mouse brain activity, they report that this process happens in a region of the brain called the hippocampus. Curve at tip of shoes eases movement but may lead to weaker muscles, problems ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:d23afbcb-2bb0-0c92-2cf0-80bad0b059df Thu, 17 Sep 2020 17:12:49 -0500 The scientists found that the more curved a toe spring is, the less power the foot inside the shoe has to exert when pushing off from the ground while walking. That means foot muscles are doing less work, and this, the researchers hypothesize, may have consequences such as less endurance and make people more susceptible to medical conditions like plantar fasciitis. New high-speed test shows how antibiotics combine to kill bacteria ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:1b885e2f-fbd1-c71f-ecbf-a25bd99bee28 Thu, 17 Sep 2020 17:12:40 -0500 Researchers have developed a new method to determine - rapidly, easily and cheaply - how effective two antibiotics combined can be in stopping bacterial growth. The new method is simple for laboratories to use and can provide greater scope for customizing treatment of bacterial infections. Scientists 'scent train' honeybees to boost sunflowers' seed production ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:1c36f963-63d0-061e-82c5-5484a72250e2 Thu, 17 Sep 2020 17:11:52 -0500 If you want a dog to hunt something down, it helps to let them sniff an item to pick up the scent. Now, researchers have found that scent training honeybees might work in a similar way -- and that this approach could make bees more efficient in pollinating crops. The findings show that honeybees given food scented with sunflower odors led to a significant increase in sunflower crop production. Supercooled water is a stable liquid, scientists show for the first time ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:6f086f67-73b8-7a0b-cb84-bee1c27962e2 Thu, 17 Sep 2020 17:04:19 -0500 First-ever measurements provide evidence that extremely cold supercooled water exists in two distinct structures that co-exist and vary in proportion dependent on temperature. Hubble captures crisp new portrait of Jupiter's storms ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:b2f30cba-d7de-1e81-919e-7913bd4d8f17 Thu, 17 Sep 2020 17:04:17 -0500 Hubble's sharp view is giving researchers an updated weather report on the monster planet's turbulent atmosphere, including a remarkable new storm brewing, and a cousin of the famous Great Red Spot region gearing up to change color -- again. Quizzes improve academic performance ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:3bb8a3ea-27e3-c2d4-44ad-4e8b404b9742 Thu, 17 Sep 2020 17:04:10 -0500 Students who are quizzed over class material at least once a week tend to perform better on midterm and final exams compared to students who did not take quizzes, according to a new meta-analysis. The researchers found in addition to frequency, immediate feedback from instructors also seemed to positively impact student performance. New mathematical tool can select the best sensors for the job ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:4f34a57d-ebd0-0d38-b7b6-3d7e48913c91 Thu, 17 Sep 2020 17:04:07 -0500 In the 2019 Boeing 737 Max crash, the recovered black box from the aftermath hinted that a failed pressure sensor may have caused the ill-fated aircraft to nose dive. This incident and others have fueled a larger debate on sensor selection, number and placement to prevent the reoccurrence of such tragedies. Researchers have now developed a comprehensive mathematical framework that can help engineers make informed decisions about which sensors to use. 'Cellular compass' guides stem cell division in plants ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:129c239a-6619-2cda-7ee9-f6118a20b5b4 Thu, 17 Sep 2020 17:04:03 -0500 Biologists observing the formation of leaves noticed the nuclei moved in bewildering ways. Further investigation uncovered proteins that act as compasses and motors, guiding the divisions of individual cells to create the overall pattern of the leaf. Genetic adaptation to climate change is swift in crop pests ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:98393597-986a-655a-a855-c22eac7c3c85 Thu, 17 Sep 2020 17:04:01 -0500 By comparing genetic variants differing in the two fly populations, researchers found that polygenic traits led to the quickness of adaptation; many genes, each with very small effects, worked together to determine the rate of development. The research illustrates that crop pests and insect disease vectors with similar biology may rapidly respond to changing climates by a similar genetic mechanism. Algorithms uncover cancers' hidden genetic losses and gains ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:4f842d89-d71e-c006-97fb-ae0887621837 Thu, 17 Sep 2020 17:02:02 -0500 Limitations in DNA sequencing technology make it difficult to detect some major mutations often linked to cancer, such as the loss or duplication of parts of chromosomes. Now, methods developed by computer scientists will allow researchers to more accurately identify these mutations in cancerous tissue, yielding a clearer picture of the evolution and spread of tumors than was previously possible. Shedding light on the development of efficient blue-emitting semiconductors ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:3a549d06-00e6-83ef-b7c0-a2f49b684573 Thu, 17 Sep 2020 12:55:24 -0500 Scientists have discovered a new alkali copper halide, Cs5Cu3Cl6I2, that emits pure blue light. The combination of the two halide ions, chloride and iodide, gives the material a crystalline structure made of zigzag chains and peculiar properties that result in highly efficient photoluminescence. This novel compound could be readily used to produce relatively inexpensive and eco-friendly white LEDs and reduce the energy used in the generation of everyday artificial light. Curbing land clearing for food production is vital to reverse biodiversity declines ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:50e5d2d4-b38c-5122-2183-3bf289981c10 Thu, 17 Sep 2020 12:55:17 -0500 Preserving terrestrial biodiversity requires more ambitious land-conservation targets to be established and met. At the same time, 'bending the curve' on biodiversity loss needs more efficient food production, and healthier and less wasteful consumption and trade. If undertaken with 'unprecedented ambition and coordination,' these efforts provide an opportunity to reverse terrestrial biodiversity loss by 2050. Sugar promotes sperm longevity in pig reproductive tract ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:bbe71c4a-fc22-ca40-7c55-8998ccc78831 Thu, 17 Sep 2020 12:55:13 -0500 For many livestock species, artificial insemination (AI) is standard. But it can be tricky to achieve success the first time, thanks to variability in ovulation timing across the herd. A new study identifies a naturally occurring sugar that slows the maturation of sperm in pigs, opening up the possibility of extending sperm storage time within the female reproductive tract and increasing the chances of successful fertilization through AI. Venus' ancient layered, folded rocks point to volcanic origin ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:d4bf3938-9f1e-975f-9e3b-9ff8865a6250 Thu, 17 Sep 2020 12:55:09 -0500 Researchers has found that some of the oldest terrain on Venus, known as tesserae, have layering that seems consistent with volcanic activity. The finding could provide insights into the enigmatic planet's geological history. The brain's memory abilities inspire AI experts in making neural networks less 'forgetful' ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:cfc72c6f-59ee-ca31-1734-2d18aa734c65 Thu, 17 Sep 2020 12:55:07 -0500 Artificial intelligence (AI) experts report that they have successfully addressed what they call a 'major, long-standing obstacle to increasing AI capabilities' by drawing inspiration from a human brain memory mechanism known as 'replay.' Consumers value difficult decisions over easy choices ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:b0c3e416-5bf1-324d-945c-cdd59eff8fad Thu, 17 Sep 2020 12:52:22 -0500 Researchers found that disfluency, or the difficulty for an individual to process a message, increases people's attitudes toward that message after a time delay. Emissions could add 15 inches to 2100 sea level rise ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:fed4b38e-fd07-997a-4e29-b5d895be6a4d Thu, 17 Sep 2020 11:28:44 -0500 An international effort that brought together more than 60 ice, ocean and atmosphere scientists from three dozen international institutions has generated new estimates of how much of an impact Earth's melting ice sheets. Europe's old-growth forests at risk ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:4e9ad62b-b20b-a23c-c92a-dc6d8c95b68d Thu, 17 Sep 2020 11:28:42 -0500 A new study presents the first comprehensive assessment of the conservation status of primary forests in Europe -- and shows that many of them are not protected and at risk of being destroyed. The researchers conclude that formal conservation of these forests should be a top priority for countries to meet their climate change and biodiversity goals. How much will polar ice sheets add to sea level rise? ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:b279b65f-ec85-3079-aa0a-b269fb0bc979 Thu, 17 Sep 2020 11:28:38 -0500 Over 99% of terrestrial ice is bound up in the ice sheets covering Antarctic and Greenland. Even partial melting of this ice due to climate change will significantly contribute to sea level rise. But how much exactly? For the first time ever, glaciologists, oceanographers, and climatologists from 13 countries have teamed up to make new projections. Keys to control the 'driver of cancer's aggressiveness' ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:e62c033a-51a2-a8b1-9689-b7c033b37a1c Thu, 17 Sep 2020 11:28:36 -0500 A dangerous protein named SNAI2 helps cancers metastasize and shields cancer from both the immune system and chemotherapy. Worse, SNAI2 is in a family of proteins that are notoriously hard to fight with drugs. But now researchers have found a way to use the cell's recycling system to control SNAI2, providing a new possibility for treatments. Understanding the movement patterns of free-swimming marine snails ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:839968f3-0335-7f72-9748-73b2e05618dc Thu, 17 Sep 2020 11:28:32 -0500 New research looks at the swimming and sinking kinematics of nine species of warm water pteropods (sea snails) to shed light on their ecology, predator-prey interactions, and vertical distributions. By using a high-speed stereophotogrammetry system, investigators were able to focus on how the shell shape, body geometry, and body size affect their swimming behavior from a fluid mechanics perspective, while image analysis and metabarcoding related swimming behaviors to night time and daytime vertical distributions. Could breadfruit be the next superfood? Researchers say yes ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:36f82d4d-fa3f-8617-861a-59a218508bc7 Thu, 17 Sep 2020 11:28:29 -0500 A fruit used for centuries in countries around the world is getting the nutritional thumbs-up from a team of researchers. Breadfruit, which grows in abundance in tropical and South Pacific countries, has long been a staple in the diet of many people. The fruit can be eaten when ripe, or it can be dried and ground up into a flour and repurposed into many types of meals. New calculation refines comparison of matter with antimatter ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:5118f218-9149-e338-76d9-360661788b5d Thu, 17 Sep 2020 11:28:22 -0500 An international collaboration of theoretical physicists has published a new calculation relevant to the search for an explanation of the predominance of matter over antimatter in our universe. The new calculation gives a more accurate prediction for the likelihood with which kaons decay into a pair of electrically charged pions vs. a pair of neutral pions. Higher dementia risk in women with prolonged fertility ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:0b8ff741-34d8-ab18-4329-86e5c8241167 Thu, 17 Sep 2020 09:54:19 -0500 Women with a longer reproductive period had an elevated risk for dementia in old age, compared with those who were fertile for a shorter period, a population-based study. Time-restricted feeding improves health without altering the body's core clock ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:b02d2613-d70d-93d5-610b-d17c53668cf0 Thu, 17 Sep 2020 09:54:16 -0500 For the first time, scientists have studied the early effects of time-restricted feeding on the daily periodic oscillations of metabolites and genes in muscle, and metabolites in blood. The findings find that time-restricted feeding does not influence the muscle's core clock, and opens the door to more research on how these observed changes improve health. Formation of the Alps: Detaching and uplifting, not bulldozing ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:2d512b94-f1fd-d8a3-ee76-10d761d6fecf Thu, 17 Sep 2020 09:54:13 -0500 Researchers have used a computer model to test a new hypothesis about the formation of the Alps while simulating seismic activity in Switzerland. This will help improve current earthquake risk models. Engineered bacteria churn out cancer biomarkers ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:bf3a9449-f1af-8e4d-47cf-5b4932667f67 Thu, 17 Sep 2020 09:54:09 -0500 Pity the glycan. A lab has created these very tools by commandeering simple, single-celled microorganisms - namely E. coli bacteria - and engineering them to explore the complex process of glycosylation and the functional role that protein-linked glycans play in health and disease. New cause of syndromic microcephaly identified ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:1688542c-5a97-1965-dffd-590435e25970 Thu, 17 Sep 2020 09:54:08 -0500 A team of international collaborators identifies a new cause of syndromic microcephaly caused by LMNB1 mutations that disrupt the nuclear envelope. Plant nutrient delivery breakthrough ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:33c7f79a-4d5a-7e64-7ae7-453f237dfae0 Thu, 17 Sep 2020 09:54:03 -0500 The collaboration revealed that the symbiotic relationship between plants and fungi provides nitrates to plants, which could lead to reduced fertilizer use. Sturdy fabric-based piezoelectric energy harvester takes us one step closer to wearable electronics ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:7ab4f440-ac7b-4c3c-5d11-cefe924b1895 Thu, 17 Sep 2020 09:54:01 -0500 Researchers presented a highly flexible but sturdy wearable piezoelectric harvester using the simple and easy fabrication process of hot pressing and tape casting. This energy harvester, which has record high interfacial adhesion strength, will take us one step closer to being able to manufacture embedded wearable electronics. Climate change threatens Komodo dragons ScienceDaily: Latest Science News urn:uuid:a29a62d5-c246-da8f-e3b7-b3c0ddcd1f37 Thu, 17 Sep 2020 09:54:00 -0500 The world's largest lizard, the Komodo dragon, could be driven to extinction by climate change unless significant measures to intervene are taken soon.